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Table 3 Odds ratios of MetS risk factors by hsCRP and sRAGE categories in men (n = 712) a

From: Higher serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product levels and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese adult men: a cross-sectional study

  Crude Model 1c   
MetS Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b   
Higher hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 192) 1   1    
Higher hCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 161) 0.65 (0.42–1.01) 0.057 0.60 (0.37–0.95) 0.031   
Lower hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 164) 0.26 (0.16–0.43) <0.001 0.26 (0.15–0.43) <0.001   
Lower hsCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 195) 0.16 (0.09–0.27) <0.001 0.16 (0.09–0.28) <0.001   
  Crude Model 1 c Model 4 d
Central obesity Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b
Higher hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 192) 1   1   1  
Higher hCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 161) 0.56 (0.36–0.87) 0.010 0.50 (0.31–0.79) 0.003 0.56 (0.35–0.92) 0.020
Lower hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 164) 0.38 (0.24–0.61) <0.001 0.38 (0.23–0.61) <0.001 0.48 (0.30–0.80) 0.004
Lower hsCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 195) 0.17 (0.10–0.28) <0.001 0.15 (0.09–0.26) <0.001 0.21 (0.12–0.37) <0.001
  Crude Model 1 c Model 4 d
Elevated BP Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b
Higher hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 192) 1   1   1  
Higher hCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 161) 0.40 (0.26–0.63) <0.001 0.43 (0.26–0.71) 0.001 0.49 (0.30–0.83) 0.007
Lower hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 164) 0.47 (0.30–0.73) 0.001 0.41 (0.25–0.67) <0.001 0.54 (0.32–0.90) 0.019
Lower hsCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 195) 0.24 (0.16–0.37) <0.001 0.25 (0.15–0.40) <0.001 0.35 (0.21–0.58) <0.001
  Crude Model 1 c Model 4 d
Elevated FBG Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b
Higher hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 192) 1   1   1  
Higher hCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 161) 0.75 (0.48–1.16) 0.20 0.87 (0.54–1.39) 0.56 1.04 (0.64–1.68) 0.88
Lower hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 164) 0.51 (0.32–0.80) 0.004 0.50 (0.31–0.81) 0.005 0.61 (0.37–1.00) 0.050
Lower hsCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 195) 0.47 (0.30–0.73) 0.001 0.60 (0.38–0.96) 0.031 0.86 (0.52–1.42) 0.56
  Crude Model 1 c Model 4 d
Elevated TG Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b
Higher hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 192) 1   1   1  
Higher hCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 161) 0.91 (0.59–1.39) 0.66 0.86 (0.54–1.32) 0.46 1.01 (0.63–1.63) 0.96
Lower hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 164) 0.52 (0.34–0.82) 0.004 0.55 (0.35–0.84) 0.011 0.77 (0.47–1.25) 0.29
Lower hsCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 195) 0.34 (0.21–0.53) <0.001 0.34 (0.21–0.54) <0.001 0.53 (0.32–0.89) 0.015
  Crude Model 1 c Model 4 d
Reduced HDL-C Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b Odds ratio (95% CI) P b
Higher hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 192) 1   1   1  
Higher hCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 161) 1.09 (0.65–1.82) 0.76 0.78 (0.45–1.38) 0.40 0.79 (0.43–1.47) 0.46
Lower hsCRP/lower sRAGE (n = 164) 0.35 (0.18–0.68) 0.002 0.39 (0.19–0.77) 0.007 0.44 (0.21–0.93) 0.032
Lower hsCRP/higher sRAGE (n = 195) 0.34 (0.18–0.64) 0.001 0.27 (0.14–0.54) <0.001 0.37 (0.18–0.78) 0.009
  1. aParticipants were categorized by the median values (1259.0 pg/mL for sRAGE; 0.38 mg/L for hsCRP). CI, confidential interval ; sRAGE, soluble receptor of advanced glycation end-products; BP, blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; TG, triglyceride; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
  2. bMultiple logistic regression analysis.
  3. cAdjusted for age (continuous variable), smoking status (never, former, or current), drinking status (never, ≤ 3 day(s)/week, 4–6 days/week, or every day), educational level (≥college or not), occupation (desk work or non-desk work), depressive symptoms (Self-Rating Depression Scale ≥40 or not), physical activity (<1.0 METs · hour/week, 1.0–22.9 METs · hour/week, or ≥23.0 METs · hour/week), total energy intake (continuous variable), sleep time (≥6 and ≤8 hours/day or not), and eGFR (continuous variable).
  4. dAdditionally adjusted for mutual metabolic syndrome components.