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Table 2 Laboratory and clinical variables and arterial stiffness markers by ischemic stroke subtype in subjects with ischemic stroke and metabolic syndrome and in patients with acute ischemic stroke without metabolic syndrome

From: Immune-inflammatory markers and arterial stiffness indexes in subjects with acute ischemic stroke with and without metabolic syndrome

Variable Lacunar P LAAS P CEI P
Number With metabolic syndrome (n: 49) Without metabolic syndrome (n 52)   With metabolic syndrome (n: 45) Without metabolic syndrome (n: 37)   With metabolic syndrome (n:32) Without metabolic syndrome (n:35)  
SBP/DBP (mm/Hg) 148±6.5/94±4.5 144±45/9235 0.020 146±3.4 /93±4.5 145.5/91±2.9 0.89 144±3.8/ 90±3.1 143±2.8/90±4.1 0.71
Diabetes (n/%) 27 (55.10 ) 22 (42.30) 0.025 19 (42.22 ) 17 (45.94) 0.71 9 ( 28.13) 10 (28.57 ) 0.51
Hypertension (n/%) 29 (59.18 ) 28 (53.84) 0.040 19 (41.30 ) 20 (54.05) 0.013 14 ( 43.75) 12 (34.28) 0.011
Previous stroke (n/%) 19 (38.77) 14 (26.92) 0.010 16 (34.78) 10 (27.02) 0.041 11 (34.37) 9 (25.71) 0.027
AIx (%) 116. 3.5 112 ± 2.8 0.030 111±3.7 108±2.9 0.031 108±4.4 107±3.5 0.021
PWV (m/sec) 14.45±2.6 12.81 ±2.1 0.030 11.2 ± 2.31 10.4 ± 2.22 0.030 11.48 ± 1.98 11.25±2,65 0.030
NIHSS 17.65±14.59 15.64 ± 8.73 0.021 22.51±16.06 19.00±12.72 0.034 25.23±8.78 22.23±8.78 0.023
CAD (n/%) 18 (36.73) 14 (26.92) 0.011 16 (35.5) 12 ( 32.43) 0.71 8 (25) 8 (20) 0.07
Micro-albuminuria (n/%) 21 (42.85) 17 (32.76) 0.02 17 (37.77) 9 (24.37) 0.03 9 ( 28.12) 7 (20) 0.045
Carotid plaque (n/%) 14 (28.57) 9 (17.30 ) 0.031 16 (35.55) 11 ( 29.79 ) 0.023 7 (21.87) 5 (14.28 ) 0.02
LVH (n/%) 11 (22.44) 14 (26.92) 0.021 9 (20) 6 (16.27 ) 0.011 10 ( 31.25) 9 (25.71) 0.03
Previous brain infarct at neuro-imaging 18 (36.73) 12 (23.07) 0.011 14 (30.43) 9 ( 24.32) 0.021 9 (28.12) 7 (20) 0.02
WMHLS (n/%) 19 (38.77) 14 (26.92) 0.021 13 (28.26) 8 (21.62) 0.032 11 (34.37) 8 (22.85 ) 0.021
CRP (mg/dl) 4.1 ± 2,3 3.5 ± 2.0 0.011 5.0 ± 1.8 3.9 ± 2.1 0.018 5.8 ± 1.6 4.1 ± 1.5 0.020
IL-1-beta (pg/ml) 7 (5-11) 5.2 (3-8) 0.012 9 (5-12) 7.9 (4.5-12) 0.017 12 (6-17) 10.8 (6-14) 0.021
IL-6 (pg/ml) 9.8 (6,5-19) 8 (6-21) 0.021 12 (6-27) 10.4 (5-23.5) 0.014 13.5 (5-31) 10.2 (4-26) 0.019
TNF-α (pg/ml) 29.5 (9.5-33) 23.5 (8. 5-29) 0.025 41.5 (11.25-47) 37.5 (11.6-41) 0.031 43.5 (21-58) 35.5 (20-50) <0.05
E-selectin (ng/ml) 5.05 (1.8-5.7) 3.25 (1.7-5.7) <0.05 4.85 (1.96-7.9) 2.75 (1.6-5.6) <0.05 4.15 (2.2-4.1) 3.55 (2.1-4.1) 0.011
P-selectin (ng/ml) 4.5 (2-6.8) 3.1 (2-4.7) 0.022 5.4 (2-8.0) 4.3 (2.7-6) 0.034 6.2 (3-8.9) 4.9 (2-7.5) 0.018
VICAM-1 (ng/ml) 19 (10.1-21) 15 (8.1-22) 0.031 17.5 (9.2-20) 15 (8.2-19.8) 0.022 19 (10.1-25) 17.8 (11.1-23) 0.041
ICAM-1 (ng/ml) 20.8 (15.2-27 ) 15.8 (10.2-17 ) <0.05 18.9 (11.2-23) 16.9 (9.8-20) 0.028 22.6 (12.2-29) 21.3 (10-27) 0.021
IL-10 (pg/ml) 2.95 (2-7) 3.15 (2-8) 0.45 2.96 (2-7) 3.17 (2-6) 0.52 3.2 (2-9) 23.2 (2-9) 0.39
vWF (ng/ml) 12 (4-19) 9 (4-16) <0.05 14 (5-19) 11 (5-16) <0.05 14 (6-18) 12 (6-18) 0.023
PAI-1 (pg/ml) 145 (97.5-178) 137 (98.5-149) <0.05 139 (79.4-165) 128(91.5-135) <0.05 139 (99.0-145) 109 (99.0-145) <0.05
TPA (pg/ml) 28 (16.15-39) 24 (12.15-35) 0.021 26.7 (11.4-31) 22 (10.5-29) 0.031 24 (12.1-47) 20 (10.1-39) 0.021
  1. SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; MAP: mean arterial pressure; AIx: augmentation index; PWV: pulse wave velocity; SSS: Scandinavian Stroke Scale score; NIHSS: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ; Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs); CAD: coronary artery disease; CHF: congestive heart failure; LVH: left ventricular hypertrophy; WMHLS: white matter hypertension lesions.
  2. Demographic and history data are expressed as n° (percentage).