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Table 1 Subjects’ demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics according to the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS)

From: Major components of metabolic syndrome and adiponectin levels: a cross-sectional study

  Porto Alegre cohort MS São Paulo cohort MS
  Absence Presence P valuea Absence Presence P valuea
N 36 136 - 38 382 -
Female sex 28 (78%) 96 (71%) 0.531 10 (26%) 181 (47%) 0.010
Age (years) 48 ± 12 54 ± 11 0.010 59 ± 12 60 ± 10 0.647
Etnicity (% of white) 28 (78%) 114 (84%) 0.676 20 (51%) 233 (61%) 0.286
Tabagism 5 (14%) 18 (13%) 0.740 26 (67%) 302 (79%) 0.334
Habitual alcohol consumption 3 (8%) 11 (8%) 0.937 5 (13%) 10 (3%) 0.016
Physical activity    0.082    0.061
 Sedentary 17 (46%) 79 (58%)   18 (46%) 111 (29%)  
 Active (≥150 min per week) 19 (54%) 57 (42%)   21 (54%) 271 (71%)  
BMI (Kg/m2) 28 ± 6 33 ± 6 - 23 ± 3 29 ± 5 -
 Overweight 12 (33%) 48 (36%) - 9 (24%) 130 (34%) -
 Obesity 12 (33%) 79 (59%) - 1 (3%) 149 (39%) -
Waist circumference (cm)       
 Females 91.4 ± 14.2 105.5 ± 12.5 - 80.7 ± 8.0 97.8 ± 12.4 -
 Males 101.1 ± 16.8 106.7 ± 11.8 - 84.9 ± 6.2 100.6 ± 1.1 -
Glucose Tolerance Status    <0.001    <0.001
 Normal Glucose Tolerance 32 (89%) 16 (12%)   20 (53%) 50 (13%)  
 Prediabetes 1(3%) 76 (56%)   12 (32%) 123 (31%)  
 Type 2 diabetes 3 (8%) 44 (32%)   6 (16%) 209 (56%)  
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 91 ± 11 114 ± 41 - 100 ± 24 126 ± 47 -
2 h-plasma glucose (mg/dL) 111 ± 43 191 ± 81 - - - -
HbA1c (%) 5.5 ± 0.6 6.4 ± 1.2 0.001 5.7 ± 0.8 6.9 ± 1.6 <0.001
HOMA-IR 1.6 (1.1 – 2.4) 3.3 (1.9 – 4.7) 0.002 0.5 (0.3 – 0.6) 1 (0.6 – 1.6) <0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 201 ± 41 205 ± 42 0.749 272 ± 48 270 ± 54 0.861
HDL- cholesterol (mg/dL) 55 ± 13 47 ± 12 - 46 ± 12 38 ± 10 -
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 100 ± 40 162 ± 91 - 96 ± 26 163 ± 92 -
US-CRP (mg/L) 1.8 (1.5 – 4.6) 4.0 (5.4 – 8.3) 0.003 - - -
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 349 (300 – 385) 384 (372 – 412) 0.107 - - -
Systolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 125 ± 19 144 ± 22 - 138 ± 24 141 ± 23 -
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 79 ± 11 87 ± 13 - 79 ± 15 80 ± 13 -
Systolic 24-h Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 118.4 ± 12.6 134.3 ± 15.2 0.010 - - -
Diastolic 24-h Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 71.5 [65 – 79.3] 79.0 [70.5 – 87.0] 0.087 - - -
Systolic daytime Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 121.3 ± 12.8 137.9 ± 15.1 0.010 - - -
Diastolic daytime Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 75.0 [68.3 – 83.0] 83.0 [75.0 – 90.0] 0.107 - - -
Systolic nighttime Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 112.3 ± 13.3 126.6 ± 17.0 0.023 - - -
Diastolic nighttime Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 65.6 ± 10.0 71.5 ± 11.9 0.114 - - -
Medicines:       
 Antihypertensive 8 (22) 68 (52) 0.014 20 (54) 316 (86) <0.001
 Statin 3 (9) 23 (18) 0.671 11 (28) 235 (61) <0.001
 Hypoglycemic 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.998 9 (23) 85 (20) 0.854
  1. Data expressed as absolute number (%), mean ± SD or median (P25-75). SI conversion factors: triglycerides, mg/dL × 0.01129 = mmol/L; cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL × 0.02586 = mmol/L; glucose, mg/dL × 0.0556 = mmol/L. aP value for comparisons between two groups was tested by χ2 test for categorical variables or Student’s t test for continuous variables and were adjusted for age and sex by multiple logistic regression analysis. Since the sample was grouped by the presence of MS, P values were not expressed for comparison of its components (all P values were < 0.05).