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Table 1 Biochemical markers of 24 young men, 24 premenopausal women, and 36 postmenopausal women sampled after an overnight fast after 4, 3 and 6-week treatment periods, respectively, of consuming alcohol-free or alcohol-containing beverages

From: Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fetuin-A levels in men and women: post-hoc analyses of three open-label randomized crossover trials

  Young men   Premenopausal women   Postmenopausal women  
  Orange juice Vodka and orange juice p value Alcohol-free beer Beer p value White grape juice White wine p value
Fetuin-A (μg/ml) 441 ± 11 426 ± 11 0.02 498 ± 15 492 ± 15 0.48 448 ± 17 437 ± 17 0.16
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 10.5 ± 1.0 11.8 ± 1.0 0.005 6.8 ± 0.4 7.2 ± 0.4 0.01 12.0 ± 0.7 13.1 ± 0.7 <0.001
Insulin (pmol/l) 59.8 ± 8.5 55.7 ± 8.6 0.53 45.7 ± 4.0 46.1 ± 4.0 0.90 46.5 ± 3.4 40.0 ± 3.4 0.90
Glucose (mmol/l) 5.3 ± 0.10 5.3 ± 0.10 0.76 4.8 ± 0.11 4.8 ± 0.11 0.36 5.4 ± 0.11 5.4 ± 0.11 0.36
HOMA-IR 1.98 ± 0.30 1.87 ± 0.30 0.61 1.41 ± 0.11 1.43 ± 0.11 0.81 1.64 ± 0.13 1.42 ± 0.13 0.02
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.12 ± 0.05 1.22 ± 0.05 0.009 1.52 ± 0.07 1.62 ± 0.07 0.008 1.57 ± 0.07 1.68 ± 0.07 <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.63 ± 0.17 2.70 ± 0.17 0.55 2.40 ± 0.07 2.37 ± 0.07 0.77 3.84 ± 0.12 3.51 ± 0.12 <0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.23 ± 0.14 1.33 ± 0.14 0.30 1.27 ± 0.08 1.25 ± 0.08 0.61 1.18 ± 0.08 1.04 ± 0.08 <0.001
Free fatty acids (mmol/l) 0.42 ± 0.03 0.35 ± 0.03 0.07 0.34 ± 0.03 0.29 ± 0.03 0.26 0.43 ± 0.04 0.44 ± 0.04 0.67
Alanine aminotransferase (U/l) 15.2 ± 1.1 15.9 ± 1.1 0.49 10.8 ± 1.8 10.0 ± 1.8 0.21 13.8 ± 2.5 17.4 ± 2.5 0.29
Alkaline phosphates (U/l) 65.1 ± 4.3 65.8 ± 4.3 0.70 56.9 ± 6.5 57.8 ± 6.5 0.68 72.7 ± 2.9 73.6 ± 2.9 0.73
Aspartate aminotransferase (U/l) 21.0 ± 1.0 20.6 ± 1.0 0.62 17.8 ± 2.0 17.8 ± 2.0 0.95 20.9 ± 2.0 24.8 ± 2.0 0.13
γ-Glutamyltransferase (U/l) 19.8 ± 2.4 24.3 ± 2.4 0.003 16.5 ± 2.2 18.5 ± 2.2 0.01 18.4 ± 5.2 27.5 ± 5.2 0.21
  1. Data are presented as means ± SEM. P values are obtained from a mixed-model ANOVA. Abbreviations: HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HDL high-density lipoprotein; LDL low-density lipoprotein.