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Table 1 Characteristics of the 565 male and 628 female offspring who had information about either parent’s metabolic syndrome status in the Framingham Heart Study (N = 1193)

From: Parent-offspring association of metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Heart Study

  Male (n = 565) Female (n = 628) P valuea
Age 52.57 (8.86) 53.33 (9.60) 0.537
Education status, %    <0.001
High school 34.3 38.4
College 39.5 47.5
More than college 26.2 14.1
Number of years of school completed 14.35 (2.24) 13.91 (2.02) <0.01
Income Level, %    <0.001
< $20,000, 11.1 63.2
$20,000- $44,000, 63.4 34.7
$45,000 or higher 25.5 2.1
Smoked cigarettes regularly last year, %b 17.0 9.0 0.219
Alcohol consumption, %c 76.9% 66.5% <0.001
Physical activity Scored 36.19 (7.51) 33.81 (4.61) <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 40.58 (4.43) 37.64 (5.78) <0.001
Serum triglyceride level (mmol/l) 1.54 (0.63) 1.42 (0.41) <0.05
Serum HDL-C level (mmol/l) 1.19 (0.33) 1.51 (0.40) <0.001
Resting systolic blood pressure 125.74 (17.41) 124.89 (20.52) 0.468
Resting diastolic blood pressure 75.81 (9.66) 72.58 (9.92) <0.001
Fasting blood glucose level 5.99 (1.58) 5.47 (1.14) <0.001
Abdominal obesity%e 49.4 66.4 <0.001
High Triglyceride%f 54.3 43.2 <0.001
Low HLD-C%g 47.4 41.4 <0.05
Elevated blood Pressure%h 65.3 57.8 <0.01
Impaired fasting glucose%i 32.0 16.2 <0.001
Metabolic syndrome%j 43.0 35.5 <0.01
  1. Data presented as mean (SD) or percentage of subjects.
  2. aIndependent t test or Chi-square test.
  3. bSmokers if they had smoked regularly in the previous year.
  4. cAlcohol use was dichotomized on the basis of consumption of at least one drink per week.
  5. dCalculated based on the average daily number of hours of sleep and sedentary, slight, moderate, and heavy activity of the participant
  6. ewaist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women
  7. ffasting plasma triglyceride concentration ≥ 1.7 mmol/l or on drug treatment
  8. gHDL cholesterol levels (<1.03 mmol/l for men and < 1.3 mmol/l in women or on drug treatment.
  9. hBlood pressure ≥ 130 mm Hg systolic or ≥ 85 mm Hg diastolic or on drug treatment.
  10. ifasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l or on drug treatment.
  11. jMetabolic Syndrome defined as having at least three of the following five components: (1) abdominal obesity or large waist circumference (>102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women); (2) high triglyceride levels (fasting plasma triglyceride concentration ≥ 1.7 mmol/l or on drug treatment); (3) low HDL cholesterol levels (<1.03 mmol/l for men and < 1.3 mmol/l in women or on drug treatment); (4) elevated blood pressure (≥130 mm Hg systolic or ≥ 85 mm Hg diastolic or on drug treatment); or, (5) IFG or impaired fasting glucose (≥6.1 mmol/l or on drug treatment).