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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for 4-years incidence of type 2 diabetes according to quartile groups of liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and GGT) at baseline in females

From: The association between liver enzymes and risk of type 2 diabetes: the Namwon study

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P for trend
AST (units/l) ≤18 19 to 21 22 to 25 ≥26  
Cases/persons at risk 74/983 58/1,066 86/1,187 95/1,104  
Model 1 1 0.69 (0.48-0.98) 0.92 (0.67-1.28) 1.11 (0.80-1.52) 0.212
Model 2 1 0.66 (0.46-0.95) 0.87 (0.62-1.22) 0.99 (0.71-1.38) 0.567
Model 3 1 0.72 (0.49-1.05) 0.88 (0.62-1.25) 1.01 (0.72-1.43) 0.562
Model 4 1 0.67 (0.45-0.99) 0.83 (0.57-1.12) 0.95 (0.66-1.37) 0.783
ALT (units/l) ≤13 14 to 16 17 to 21 ≥22  
Cases/persons at risk 56/1,199 52/994 77/1,003 128/1,127  
Model 1 1 1.12 (0.76-1.65) 1.69 (1.18-2.40) 2.65 (1.91-3.67) <0.001
Model 2 1 0.99 (0.67-1.47) 1.40 (0.97-2.01) 1.86 (1.32-2.61) <0.001
Model 3 1 0.97 (0.64-1.48) 1.38 (0.94-2.02) 1.86 (1.31-2.65) <0.001
Model 4 1 0.86 (0.56-1.32) 1.23 (0.83-1.83) 1.49 (1.03-2.16) 0.006
GGT (units/l) ≤12 13 to 15 16 to 21 ≥22  
Cases/persons at risk 45/1,248 42/882 85/1,076 141/1,117  
Model 1 1 1.35 (0.88-2.07) 2.30 (1.59-3.33) 3.88 (2.74-5.49) <0.001
Model 2 1 1.14 (0.74-1.77) 1.73 (1.18-2.54) 2.69 (1.86-3.89) <0.001
Model 3 1 1.11 (0.70-1.76) 1.60 (1.06-2.39) 2.45 (1.66-3.61) <0.001
Model 4 1 0.97 (0.60-1.55) 1.27 (0.83-1.94) 1.85 (1.23-2.79) <0.001
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age.
  2. Model 2: Model 1 plus body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, log-triglyceride, alcohol intake status, smoking status, physical activity, and follow-up period.
  3. Model 3: Model 2 plus log-CRP.
  4. Model 4: Model 3 plus fasting glucose and HOMA.