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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for 4-years incidence of type 2 diabetes according to quartile groups of liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and GGT) at baseline in males

From: The association between liver enzymes and risk of type 2 diabetes: the Namwon study

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P for trend
AST (units/l) ≤20 21 to 24 25 to 30 ≥31  
Cases/persons at risk 49/620 56/656 64/687 66/640  
Model 1 1 1.09 (0.73-1.62) 1.20 (0.81-1.77) 1.34 (0.91-1.98) 0.116
Model 2 1 1.11 (0.74-1.66) 1.10 (0.74-1.65) 1.21 (0.80-1.83) 0.390
Model 3 1 1.12 (0.73-1.71) 1.09 (0.72-1.65) 1.15 (0.76-1.76) 0.565
Model 4 1 0.98 (0.63-1.52) 0.93 (0.61-1.43) 1.07 (0.69-1.66) 0.794
ALT (units/l) ≤15 16 to 20 21 to 29 ≥30  
Cases/persons at risk 31/615 46/632 81/710 77/646  
Model 1 1 1.49 (0.93-2.39) 2.49 (1.62-3.83) 2.67 (1.72-4.15) <0.001
Model 2 1 1.42 (0.89-2.28) 2.19 (1.41-3.41) 2.11 (1.33-3.35) <0.001
Model 3 1 1.53 (0.93-2.52) 2.24 (1.40-3.59) 2.31 (1.42-3.75) <0.001
Model 4 1 1.36 (0.82-2.27) 2.03 (1.26-3.29) 1.95 (1.18-3.21) 0.004
GGT (units/l) ≤19 20 to 30 31 to 54 ≥55  
Cases/persons at risk 38/661 44/651 72/635 81/656  
Model 1 1 1.20 (0.77-1.89) 2.14 (1.42-3.23) 2.38 (1.59-3.57) <0.001
Model 2 1 1.09 (0.69-1.73) 2.00 (1.28-3.12) 2.13 (1.33-3.41) <0.001
Model 3 1 1.00 (0.62-1.63) 1.86 (1.17-2.96) 1.97 (1.21-3.22) 0.001
Model 4 1 0.86 (0.52-1.42) 1.57 (0.97-2.54) 1.58 (0.95-2.63) 0.011
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age.
  2. Model 2: Model 1 plus body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, log-triglyceride, alcohol intake status, smoking status, physical activity, and follow-up period.
  3. Model 3: Model 2 plus log-CRP.
  4. Model 4: Model 3 plus fasting glucose and HOMA.