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Table 1 Mean (± standard deviation) of dietary, physical activity and clinical data of participants at baseline and after intervention

From: Realistic changes in monounsaturated fatty acids and soluble fibers are able to improve glucose metabolism

  Baseline After intervention P-value
Daily habits variables    
Energy (kJ and kcal/day) 7,626 ± 2,842 (1,822 ± 679) 6,455 ± 2,294 (1,542 ± 548) <0.001
Carbohydrate (% E) 51.0 ± 6.9 49.6 ± 6.7 0.036
Added sugar (g) 36.8 ± 20.3 28.5 ± 20.8 <0.001
Protein (% E) 17.9 ± 3.5 19.9 ± 4.1 <0.001
Total fat (% E) 31.4 ± 5.5 31.3 ± 5.6 0.847
Saturated fatty acids (% E) 9.7 ± 2.9 9.6 ± 2.7 0.658
Monounsaturated fatty acids (% E) 10.8 ± 2.6 10.8 ± 2.7 0.951
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (% E) 8.2 ± 2.1 8.1 ± 2.0 0.724
Trans fatty acids (g) 3.3 ± 2.3 2.6 ± 2.2 <0.001
Soluble fibers/1,000 kcal (g)* 2.4 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.6 0.099
Unsoluble fibers/1,000 kcal (g)* 6.9 ± 2.8 6.9 ± 3.7 0.222
Leisure physical activity (min/week)* 36.6 ± 66.3 46.4 ± 82.0 0.466
Clinical variables    
Body weight (kg) 78.7 ± 14.8 77.0 ± 14.9 <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 101.1 ± 13.0 98.7 ± 12.3 <0.001
Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 109.7 ± 14.6 95.0 ± 10.1 <0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 98.7 ± 11.5 95.9 ± 12.1 0.029
2-h plasma glucose (mg/dL) 117.5 ± 27.7 113.2 ± 30.5 0.111
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 157.3 ± 67.2 149.3 ± 81.3 0.191
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 130.2 ± 40.5 121.3 ± 40.0 0.023
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 42.5 ± 12.5 49.5 ± 14.6 <0.001
HOMA-IR* 2.49 ± 1.81 1.66 ± 0.91 <0.001
C-reactive protein (mg/dL)* 0.34 ± 0.24 0.04 ± 0.05 <0.001
Tumor necrosis factor-α (pg/dL)* 12.5 ± 6.3 10.4 ± 6.8 <0.001
  1. Student t test; *Wilcoxon test.
  2. E, total energy intake.
  3. Individuals who were diagnosed with diabetes during the intervention period were excluded from this analysis.