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Table 4 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of type 1 diabetic patients compared by ISS quartiles

From: Insulin resistance and associated factors in patients with Type 1 Diabetes

Variables ISS 1stquartile ISS 2ndand 3rdquartiles ISS4thquartile P value
Patients n = 34 (25.2%) n = 68 (50.4%) n = 33 (24.4%)  
Gender (Male) 18 (52.9%) 30 (44.1%) 10 (30.3%) 0.063
Age (years) 32 (15–68) 27 (12–62) 25 (15–55) 0.016
Duration of diabetes (years) 17 (1–49) 16 (2–43) 10 (0–27) 0.020
BMI (kg/m2) 27.5 (19–46) 24 (17–30) 21 (18–26) < 0.001
Waist/height ratio (cm) 56.8 (40.5-78.8) 49.0 (38.7-61.9) 43.7 (36.1-51.7) < 0.001
Total insulin dose IU/Lean Mass (kg)§ 1.43 (0.53-3.35) 1.05 (0.46-1.77) 0.92 (0.19-1.63) 0.002
Total lean mass (kg)§ 0.63 (0.5-0.9) 0.74 (0.5-1.0) 0.79 (0.7-0.9) 0.001
Thoracoabdominal fat (kg)§ 13.13 (7.2-28.7) 6.28 (1.0-13.6) 3.4 (1.5-6.9) < 0.001
Leg fat (kg)§ 7.10 (3.6-12.9) 5.45 (0.9-16.3) 4.76 (1.8-10.4) 0.011
Arm fat (kg)§ 2.65 (1.2-6.8) 1.36 (0.2-4.9) 0.816 (0.2-2.2) 0.001
Total lean mass percentage§ 0.63 (0.5-0.9) 0.74 (0.5-1.0) 0.79 (0.7-0.9) 0.001
Total fat percentage§ 0.37 (0.18-0.50) 0.25 (0.05-0.49) 0.20 (0.08-0.34) < 0.001
Thoracoabdominal fat percentage§ 0.33 (0.22-0.50) 0.21 (0.05-0.41) 0.16 (0.06-0.68) < 0.001
Leg fat percentage§ 0.35 (0.14-0.48) 0.33 (0.06-0.60) 0.29 (0.11-0.49) 0.237
Arm fat percentage§ 0.39 (0.16-0.59) 0.28 (0.04-0.56) 0.18 (0.04-0.41) 0.001
Triceps skinfold (mm) 21.7 (9.7-26.6) 15.7 (4.3-30.0) 15.0 (5.3-25.7) 0.003
Scapular skinfold (mm) 24.3 (14.7-41.7) 16.0 (6.3-36.0) 12.0 (6.3-23.7) < 0.001
Acanthosis (yes)* 6 (19.4%) 3 (4.6%) 1 (3.1%) 0.013
Physical activity (yes) 19 (57.6%) 43 (63.2%) 22 (66.7%) 0.447
Family history of DM2 (yes) 25 (78.1%) 44 (66.7%) 24 (75%) 0.783
Total insulin dose (IU/day) 60 (34–340) 46 (17–111) 36 (8–85) < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 169 (117–282) 167 (76–332) 162 (76–250) 0.268
HDL (mg/dL) 46 (27–87) 57 (35–107) 56 (32–124) 0.004
LDL (mg/dL) 99 (49–178) 96 (20–252) 88 (35–150) 0.127
  1. P-value: Jonckheere-Terpstra test, Chi-square for trends, Fisher Exact Test* for comparisons of medians, frequencies and frequencies.
  2. Body mass index = weight (kg)/height (m)2.
  3. §Patients who underwent densitometry for the analysis of body composition (n = 64).