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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory profile of type 1 diabetic patients

From: Insulin resistance and associated factors in patients with Type 1 Diabetes

Variables Male Female P value
N =135 58 (43%) 77 (57%)  
Age (years) 30 (17–68) 27 (12–58) 0.139
TDM1 duration (years) 15.5 (1–48) 15.0 (1–49) 0.556
eGDR 8.49 (1.26-11.82) 9.3 (2.35-12.6) 0.055
ISS 7.60 (±2.34) 8.30 (±2.28) 0.090
BMI (kg/m2) 24.0 (19.0-36.0) 24.0 (17.0-46.0) 0.255
Waist (cm) 84.5 (65–119) 78.0 (64–123) 0.001
Hips (cm) 98.0 (80–120) 96.0 (90–150) 0.938
Waist/height ratio 49.3(36.1-70.4) 48.1 (38.5-78.9) 0.81
Waist/hip ratio 0.85 (0.75-1.12) 0.79 (0.67-1.48) <0.001
Total insulin dose UI/Lean mass (kg) 0.98 (0.32-3.15) 1.14 (0.19-3.35) 0.085
Total lean mass (kg) 53.15 (±9.55) 36.82 (41.63) <0.001
Thoracic-abdominal fat (kg) 3.63 (1.0-28.65) 6.65 (2.34-17.37) 0.053
Leg fat (kg) 3.86 (0.85-12.93) 6.81 (2.3-16.34) <0.001
Arm fat (kg) 0.738 (0.182-3.743) 1.81 (0.51-6.78) <0.001
Total lean mass percent 83.8 (56–95) 68.7 (50–86) <0.001
Total Fat Percent 16.24 (5.3-43.6) 33.00 (14.4-50) <0.001
Thoracic-abdominal total percent 14.76 (5–68.4) 26.30 (11–50.3) 0.004
Leg fat percent 18.90 (8.7) 39.27 (8.33) <0.001
Arm fat percent 11.1 (4.1-32.6) 38.0 (14.9-59.1) <0.001
Triceps skinfold (mm) 12.30 (4.33-31.67) 20.67 (8.33-48.67) <0.001
Scapular skinfold (mm) 15.70 (6.33-41.67) 18.33 (6.33-39.0) 0.035
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 160 (76–282) 169 (85–332) 0.043
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 50 (27–81) 58 (36–124) 0.001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 94.0 (35–178) 98.0 (20–252) 0.419
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 62.5 (26–310) 63 (25–295) 0.697
Systolic arterial pressure mmHg 120 (90–200) 120 (90–160) 0.012
Diastolic arterial pressure mmHg 80 (50–120) 80 (50–100) 0.017
A1c (%) 7.6 (5.4-11) 7.9 (5.8-11.1) 0.328
HbA1c(mmol/mol) 60 (36–94) 63 (40–98) 0.328
Total insulin dose (IU/kg) 55 (12–340) 44 (8–122) 0.036
Physical activity – yes 41 (70.7%) 43 (56.6%) 0.107
Acanthosis – yes* 4 (7.3%) 6 (8.2%) 0.10
Family history of TDM2 – yes 40 (70.2%) 53 (72.6%) 0.845
  1. P value: Person’s chi- square, Fisher’s exact test*, Student’s T test, and the Mann–Whitney test for differences between, frequencies, frequencies, means and medians.
  2. Body mass index = weight (kg)/height (m)2.
  3. Patients who underwent densitometry for analysis of body composition (n = 64).
  4. eGDR estimated glucose disposal rate, ISS insulin sensitivity score, BMI body mass index, A1c glycated haemoglobin.