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Table 5 Estimates of intervention effect size and total amount of residual heterogeneity ( τ 2 ) from final mixed-effect models

From: Effects of diet and exercise interventions on diabetes risk factors in adults without diabetes: meta-analyses of controlled trials

Risk factor1 Overall effect size Effect size change for intervention attributes and other factors Residual heterogeneity
Estimate ± SE P- value Explanatory Variables2 Estimate ± SE3 P-value τ2 P-value
FI (mU/L) -2.56 ± 0.58 <0.001 Presence of IGT, IR or MetS -1.20 ± 0.69 0.082 1.523 ± 0.773 <0.001
    Calorie restriction (100 kcal/d) -0.68 ± 0.26 0.009   
    Incorporation of resistance training 1.72 ± 0.81 0.034   
FG (mmol/L) -0.18 ± 0.04 <0.001 Presence of IGT, IR or MetS -0.08 ± 0.05 0.098 0.010 ± 0.004 <0.001
    After a follow-up period 0.13 ± 0.06 0.034   
SBP (mm Hg) -2.77 ± 0.56 <0.001 Presence of IGT, IR or MetS -3.23 ± 1.00 0.001 2.796 ± 1.419 <0.001
    Calorie restriction (100 kcal/d) -0.64 ± 0.23 0.006   
    Length of intervention (months) 0.13 ± 0.03 <0.001   
HDL (mmol/L) -0.015 ± 0.015 0.305 Age at baseline (years) -0.006 ± 0.002 0.021 0.005 ± 0.002 <0.001
    Fraction of women participants -0.086 ± 0.046 0.065   
TAG (mmol/L) -0.258 ± 0.037 <0.001 Calorie restriction (100 kcal/d) -0.061 ± 0.017 <0.001 0.029 ± 0.009 <0.001
    Baseline TAG (mmol/L) -0.243 ± 0.076 0.001   
BMI (kg/m2) -1.61 ± 0.13 <0.001 Calorie restriction (100 kcal/d) -0.22 ± 0.08 0.003 0.353 ± 0.125 <0.001
    Fat intake restriction (% Energy) -0.10 ± 0.03 0.003   
    Exercise session duration (10 min) -0.24 ± 0.12 0.055   
    Baseline BMI (kg/m2) -0.07 ± 0.04 0.095   
  1. 1FI: Fasting insulin, FG: Fasting glucose, SBP: Systolic blood pressure, HDL: High density lipoprotein, TAG: Triacylglyceride, BMI: Body mass index.
  2. 2IGT = Impaired glucose tolerance, IR = Insulin resistance and MetS = Metabolic syndrome.
  3. 3Standard error of the estimate.