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Table 4 Heterogeneity ( τ 2 ) of lifestyle intervention effects and statistical significance of funnel plot asymmetry from random-effect models

From: Effects of diet and exercise interventions on diabetes risk factors in adults without diabetes: meta-analyses of controlled trials

Risk factor1 Number of studies included N2 Heterogeneity2 Funnel plot asymmetry ( P-value)3
I2(%)2 τ 2 P-value
FI (mU/L) 18 1756 99.5 3.762 ± 1.511 <0.001 0.519
FG (mmol/L) 24 3897 99.4 0.013 ± 0.005 <0.001 0.774
SBP (mm Hg) 23 3443 99.4 7.474 ± 2.894 <0.001 0.771
HDL (mmol/L) 30 4218 99.8 0.007 ± 0.002 <0.001 0.577
TAG (mmol/L) 29 3908 99.8 0.050 ± 0.015 <0.001 0.855
BMI (kg/m2) 29 4160 99.8 0.881 ± 0.256 <0.001 0.587
  1. 1FI: Fasting insulin, FG: Fasting glucose, SBP: Systolic blood pressure, HDL: High density lipoprotein, TAG: Triacylglyceride, BMI: Body mass index.
  2. 2total number of participants, who concluded the interventions.
  3. 2I2 = heterogeneity (τ2) expressed as a percentage of total variance (τ2 + sample error).
  4. 3From Egger’s regression test.