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Table 3 Summary statistics for variables across the 34 studies included in the meta-analyses

From: Effects of diet and exercise interventions on diabetes risk factors in adults without diabetes: meta-analyses of controlled trials

Variable Mean ± SD1 Minimum Maximum
Energy and macronutrient intake at baseline   
Calorie intake, kcal/d 2100 ± 260 1583 2900
Carbohydrate, %E 46.6 ± 5.0 36.5 58.5
Protein, %E 17.2 ± 2.6 12.3 25
Fat, %E 34.7 ± 3.3 27.5 43.5
Saturated fat, %E 12.9 ± 1.8 9 16.6
Energy and macronutrient intake changes of intervention participants 2
Calorie intake, kcal/d -273 ± 169 -828 49.5
Carbohydrate, %E 2.9 ± 5.7 -14 11
Protein, %E 3.3 ± 5.6 -3.8 21.3
Fat, %E -6.3 ± 3.8 -16.5 0.4
Saturated fat, %E -2.9 ± 2.0 -8 0.0
Exercise intervention    
Number of sessions per week 4 ± 1.0 2 7
Session length (minutes) 41 ± 13 20 75
Risk factor level measurements at baseline    
FI 14.9 ± 5.4 3.0 24.1
FG 5.55 ± 0.4 4.83 6.20
SBP 128 ± 10 110 143
HDL 1.25 ± 0.2 0.89 1.74
TAG 1.76 ± 0.9 0.85 5.84
BMI 30.2 ± 3.3 25.0 36.0
Age at baseline, years 49 ± 7 35 60
Fraction of women participants 0.59 ± 0.3 0 1
Duration of intervention (months)3 14 ± 3.5 2 60
  1. 1SD, Standard deviation.
  2. 2Change from baseline compared to that of control participants.
  3. 3Duration from baseline to the risk factor level measurements used in the analyses.