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Table 2 Summary description of the diet plus exercise intervention studies included in the analyses

From: Effects of diet and exercise interventions on diabetes risk factors in adults without diabetes: meta-analyses of controlled trials

Study Authors and year Country Age1 Women2 IGT/IR/MetS3 BMI4 Diet intervention guidelines5 Exercise intervention guidelines5
1 Straznicky et al. 2012 [20] Australia 55 0.41 MS 32.7 ~650 kcal/d restriction, 22% protein, 30% TF, 9% SF aerobic (biking), 40 min/S, 3–4 S/wk
2 Blumenthal et al. 2010 [21] USA 52 0.69 NA 33.3 ~500 kcal/d restriction, 27% TF aerobic (biking and walking), 40 min/S, 3–4 S/wk
3 Ibanez et al. 2010 [22] Spain 50 1.00 NA 35.0 500 kcal/d restriction resistance training, 45–60 min/S, 2 S/wk
4 Straznicky et al. 2010 [23] Australia 55 0.41 MS 32.4 ~500 kcal/d restriction, 30% TF, 9% SF aerobic (biking), 40 min/S, 3 S/wk
5 Roumen et al. 2008 [24] Netherlands 56 0.45 IGT 29.4 reduced caloric and reduced fat diet aerobic plus resistant training, 30 min/S, 5 S/wk
6 Herder et al. 2009 [25] Finland 56 0.50 IGT 31.2 <30% TF, <10% SF endurance training, >30 min/S, ~6 S/wk
7 Mosca et al. 2008 [26] USA 48 0.66 NA 28.1 low-SF and low-cholesterol diet moderate physical activity (brisk walking), 30–60 min/S
8 Morgan et al. 2009 [27] UK 41 0.74 NA 31.6 Rosemary Conley's controlled-calorie low-fat diet Rosemary Conley's Fitness plan with weekly classes
9 Dale et al. 2009 [28] New Zealand 46 0.67 IR 34.6 400 kcal/d restriction, 27% TF, 9% SF high intensity training, 30 min/S, 5 S/wk
10 Meckling and Sherfey, 2007 [29] Canada 43 1.00 NA 29.9 500 kcal/d restriction, high protein (37%) diet endurance training, 36 min/S, 3 S/wk
11 Burke et al. 2007 [30] Australia 56 0.56 NA 30.1 <30% TF, <10% SF moderate intensity, 30 min/S, most days/wk
12 Bo et al. 2007 [31] Italy 56 0.58 MS 30.0 reduced TF and SF intake moderate intensity (i. e. brisk walking), ~150 min/wk
13 Arciero et al. 2006 [32] USA 43 0.48 NA 27.8 high protein (40%) and low fat (20%) diet resistance and cardiovascular training, 20 min/S, 4–6 S/wk
14 Brekke et al. 2005 [33] Sweden 42 0.37 NA 26.1 <30% TF intake, <10% SF intake walking or more intensive exercise, 30 min/S, 4–5 S/wk
15 Watkins et al. 2003 [34] USA 50 0.50 NA 33.7 500 kcal/d restriction, <20% TF cycle ergometry and jogging, or walking, ~60 min/S, 3–4 S/wk
16 Lindstrom et al. 2003 [35] Finland 55 0.66 IGT 31.3 200 kcal/d restriction, <30% TF, <10% SF endurance exercise & resistance training, >30 min/S
17 Esposito et al. 2003 [36] Italy 35 1.00 NA 34.5 1400 kcal/d, 55% carbohydrate, 30% TF, <10% SF aerobic exercise (walking and swimming)
18 Mensink et al. 2003 [37] Netherlands 56 0.43 IGT 29.5 >55% carbohydrate, <30% TF, <10% SF moderate physical activity, >30 min/S, 5 S/wk
19 McAuley et al. 2002 [38] New Zealand 46 0.71 IR 34.5 400 kcal/d restriction, 27% TF, 9% SF Moderate exercise plus resistance training, >20 min/S, 5 S/wk
20 Miller et al. 2002 [39] USA 54 0.62 NA 33.7 500 kcal/d restriction, 27% TF, 6% SF aerobic (brisk walking and biking), 30–45 min/S, 3 S/wk
21 Reseland et al. 2001 [40] Norway 45 0.00 MS 27.5 400 kcal/d restriction, <30% TF endurance exercise, 1 h/S, 3 S/wk
22 Oldroyd et al. 2001 [41] UK 58 0.40 IGT 30.2 <30% TF intake, ~50% carbohydrate aerobic exercise, 20–30 min/S, 2–3 S/wk
23 Kuller et al. 2001 [42] USA 47 1.00 NA 25.0 Calorie restriction upto 1300 kcal, 25% TF, 7% SF increasing physical activity to 1250 kcal expended weekly
24 Ornish et al. 1998 [43] USA 60 0.09 NA 26.9 10%-fat vegetarian diet moderate-intensity aerobic, 1 h/S, 5 S/wk
25 Stefanick et al. 1998 (female) [16] USA 57 1.00 NA 25.6 <30% TF intake, <7% SF intake aerobic (jogging and brisk walking), 60 min/S, 3 S/wk
26 Stefanick et al. 1998 (male) [16] USA 48 1.00 NA 27.8 <30% TF intake, <7% SF intake aerobic (jogging and brisk walking), 60 min/S, 3 S/wk
27 Wing et al. 1998 [44] USA 46 0.78 NA 36.0 600-700 kcal/d restriction, 20% TF intake aerobic (brisk walking), 60 min/S, 5 S/wk
28 Simkin-Silverman et al. 1995 [45] UK 47 1.00 NA 25.1 <25% TF intake, <7% SF intake brisk walking spending 1000 kcal/wk, 3–5 S/wk
29 Hellenius et al. 1993 [46] Sweden 46 0.00 NA 25.6 12% daily calorie and 10% TF restriction aerobic exercise, 30–45 min/S, 2–3 S/wk
30 Svendsen et al. 1993 [47] Denmark 54 1.00 NA 29.7 800 kcal/d restriction, low fat (25%) diet aerobic plus resistant training, 75 min/S, 3 S/wk
31 Page et al. 1993 [48] UK 40 0.23 IGT 25.9 50-55% carbohydrate, 30% TF, high fiber aerobic weight and circuit training, swimming, >3 S/wk
32 Schuler et al. 1992 [49] Germany 54 0.00 NA 26.6 <20% TF, 65% carbohydrate, PUSF: SF ratio >1.0 daily exercise (75% MHR), >30 min/S
33 Wood et al. 1991 (male) [17] USA 38 0.00 NA 33.5 55% carbohydrate, 30% TF, <10% SF aerobic (brisk walking and jogging), 35 min/S, 3 S/wk
34 Wood et al. 1991 (female) [17] USA 38 1.00 NA 26.3 55% carbohydrate, 30% TF, <10% SF aerobic (brisk walking and jogging), 35 min/S, 3 S/wk
  1. 1Average age of participants at baseline (years), 2fraction of women participants, 3whether participants had abnormalities such as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) or no abnormalities (NA), 4average BMI of participants at baseline (kg/m2), 5TF = Total fat (% of energy), SF = Saturated fat (% of energy), and S = exercise session.