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Table 1 Characteristics of the study cohort

From: Sex-based disparities in cardioprotective medication use in adults with diabetes

  Men Women p-value
  N = 18,174 N = 15,120  
  (54.6%) (45.4%)  
Demographic characteristics    
  Mean age at DM diagnosis (SD) 61.7 (13.2) 62.9 (15.2) <0.001
  Mean age at DM diagnosis (SD) By age group    
    <55 46.4 (5.9) 44.8 (6.9) <0.001
    55+ 68.8 (9.0) 71.1 (9.8) <0.001
  Age group <55 years 5,766 (31.6) 4,745 (31.2) 0.457
  Mean years of follow-up (SD) 5.10 (3.1) 5.14 (3.1) 0.257
  Range of follow up in years 0-12.0 0-12.0  
Comorbidity    
  CDS score (Quartile)    <0.001
    2 5,258 (28.9) 3,143 (20.8)  
    3-5 5,161 (28.4) 4,657 (30.8)  
    6-8 5,004 (27.5) 4,469 (29.6)  
    9+ 2,751 (15.1) 2,851 (18.9)  
  Cardiovascular disease status at baseline (diabetes diagnosis) 6,504 (35.8) 5,008 (33.1) <0.0001
  Renal disease in the 3 years prior to index 360 (2.0) 247 (1.6) 0.031
Access to care in the 3 years prior to index    
Total physician office visits    <0.001
  0-11 office visits 5,792 (31.9) 2,857 (18.9)  
  12-21 office visits 4,814 (26.5) 3,579 (23.7)  
  22-35 office visits 3,976 (21.9) 4,179 (27.6)  
  36 or more office visits 3,592 (19.8) 4,505 (29.8)  
Hospitalizations    <0.001
  0 11,989 (66.0) 9,661 (63.9)  
  1 or more 6,185 (34.0) 5,459 (36.1)  
Day surgeries    <0.001
  0 13,146 (72.3) 10,587 (70.0)  
  1 or more 5,028 (27.7) 4,533 (30.0)  
Cardioprotective medication use in the 1 year prior to DM diagnosis    
  Statin 2,530 (13.9) 2,050 (13.6) 0.339
  ACEi 4,576 (25.2) 3,831 (25.3) 0.740
  ARB 1,187 (6.5) 1,401 (9.3) <0.0001
  ACEi or ARB 5,505 (30.3) 4,977 (32.9) <0.0001
  Any of the above 6,541 (36.0) 5,868 (38.8) <0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: DM diabetes mellitus, SD standard deviation, ACEi angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers.