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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of studied cohorts – general population, normal weight, overweight and obese

From: Glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance: prevalence, gender differences and predictors in adolescents

Parameter General population Normal weight Overweight Obese
  Girls (n = 775) Boys (n = 743) p Girls (n = 322) Boys (n = 293) p Girls (n = 116) Boys (n = 114) p Girls (n = 381) Boys (n = 302) p
Age* (years) 16.02 (15.10;17.00) 16.08 (15.13;17.00) 0.745 16.12 (15.16; 17.02) 15.87 (15.08; 16.84) 0.097 15.66 (14.82; 16.92) 16.04 (14.46; 17.08) 0.465 15.18 (14.07; 16.42) 15.21 (14.03;16.56) 0.990
BMI* (kg/m2) 21.25 (19.41; 23.61) 21.47 (19.64; 24.48) 0.022 20.28 (19.58; 21.15) 20.29 (19.58; 21.08) 0.963 24.79 (24.17; 25.48) 24.75 (24.08; 25.70) 0.934 29.95 (27.89; 33.07) 30.34 (28.13; 33.95) 0.146
BMI* z-score 0.24 (-0.46; 1.15) 0.22 (-0.39; 1.25) 0.280 -0.12 (-0.41; 0.19) -0.15 (-0.39; 0.10) 0.114 1.60 (1.39; 1.60) 1.43 (1.22; 1.66) 0.000 3.53 (2.78; 4.65) 3.50 (2.69; 4.72) 0.506
FBG* (mmol/l) 4.83 (4.55; 5.09) 5.09 (4.84; 5.35) 0.000 4.79 (4.52; 5.06) 5.08 (4.82; 5.31) 0.000 4.79 (4.52; 5.07) 5.13 (4.90; 5.43) 0.000 4.82 (4.52; 5.14) 5.08 (4.81; 5.34) 0.000
Insulin* (mIU/l) 10.57 (7.91; 14.08) 9.78 (7.25; 13.70) 0.010 9.80 (7.6; 12.17) 8.4 (6.42; 11.61) 0.001 11.84 (9.24; 15.16) 11.30 (8.85; 15.29) 0.626 13.93 (9.72; 19.84) 15.98 (11.22; 24.83) 0.001
C-peptide* (nmol/l) 0.75 (0.63; 0.89) 0.69 (0.57; 0.86) 0.000 0.71 (0.60; 0.82) 0.64 (0.53; 0.77) 0.000 0.79 (0.68; 0.91) 0.78 (0.65; 0.92) 0.723 0.92 (0.74; 1.13) 0.94 (0.77; 1.23) 0.040
HOMA-IR* 2.26 (1.66; 3.11) 2.23 (1.63; 3.20) 0.681 2.09 (1.54; 2.72) 1.89 (1.43; 2.71) 0.099 2.52 (1.92; 3.32) 2.65 (1.91; 3.65) 0.360 2.95 (2.10; 4.29) 3.56 (2.51; 5.74) 0.000
C-peptide/Insulin* 10.09 (8.37; 11.93) 9.96 (8.48; 12.09) 0.543 10.39 (9.15; 12.13) 10.47 (8.97; 12.41) 0.728 9.50 (8.16; 11.13) 9.52 (7.99; 11.24) 0.814 9.21 (7.73; 11.15) 8.54 (6.98; 10.08) 0.000
TG* (mmol/l) 0.87 (0.67; 1.18) 0.82 (0.63; 1.08) 0.002 0.83 (0.65; 1.19) 0.74 (0.58; 0.92) 0.000 0.90 (0.66; 1.18) 0.94 (0.66; 1.23) 0.714 0.96 (0.74; 1.38) 1.12 (0.82; 1.64) 0.000
GMT* (μkat/l) 0.20 (0.17; 0.25) 0.26 (0.22; 0.337) 0.000 0.19 (0.16; 0.24) 0.25 (0.21; 0.30) 0.000 0.22 (0.18; 0.30) 0.30 (0.25; 0.42) 0.000 0.25 (0.2; 0.32) 0.34 (0.27; 0.51) 0.000
fT3/fT4* 0.35 (0.32; 0.40) 0.39 (0.35; 0.44) 0.000 0.35 (0.32; 0.40) 0.39 (0.35; 0.44) 0.000 0.36 (0.32; 0.39) 0.40 (0.36; 0.46) 0.000 0.35 (0.31;0.40) 0.40 (0.36; 0.46) 0.000
SHBG* (nmol/l) 57.77 (37.35; 82.62) 31.63 (23.15; 43.80) 0.000 63.04 (45.26; 89.82) 35.45 (25.94; 48.58) 0.000 44.50 (27.99;71.62) 29.49 (21.76; 43.38) 0.000 31.90 (22.59; 45.54) 22.62 (15.76; 43.78) 0.000
Testosterone* (nmol/l) 0.30 (0.22; 0.40) 5.25 (4.02; 6.73) 0.000 0.30 (0.22; 0.41) 5.97 (4.72; 7.10) 0.000 0.31 (0.23; 0.43) 4.60 (3.32; 6.41) 0.000 0.36 (0.26; 0.48) 2.96 (1.75; 4.34) 0.000
Adiponectin* (mg/l) 7.82 (5.36; 10.56) 6.00 (4.55; 8.17) 0.000 8.61 (6.09; 11.04) 6.59 (5.05; 8.43) 0.000 6.34 (4.86; 8.98) 5.28 (4.00; 7.42) 0.001 5.58 (3.96; 7.81) 4.52 (3.30; 6.00) 0.000
Ghrelin* (pg/ml) 669.11 (503.72; 899.49) 600.59 (459.78; 829.32) 0.000 688.97 (507.15; 918.92) 597.65 (460.22; 869.06) 0.006 646.55 (520.87; 862.62) 580.91 (480.43; 783.88) 0.138 582.61 (445.71; 759.52) 543.17 (406.74; 686.29) 0.012
Leptin* (ng/ml) 4.81 (3.07; 7.29) 0.89 (0.51; 2.18) 0.000 4.02 (2.81; 5.81) 0.63 (0.41; 0.89) 0.000 7.25 (5.27; 9.96) 2.16 (1.21; 3.20) 0.000 9.41 (6.20; 14.69) 5.48 (3.28; 8.32) 0.000
PAI-1* (ng/ml) 2.97 (2.04; 3.94) 3.03 (2.35; 4.10) 0.002 2.64 (1.89; 3.43) 2.79 (2.21; 3.57) 0.033 3.46 (2.45; 4.70) 3.37 (2.74; 4.45) 0.842 4.40 (3.19; 6.19) 4.87 (3.53; 6.76) 0.013
HOMA-IR > 2.5 (n,%) 314 (40.50%) 304 (40.90%) 0.874 98 (30.40%) 82 (28.00%) 0.505 58 (50.00%) 59 (51.80%) 0.790 251 (65.90%) 228 (75.50%) 0.006
HOMA-IR > 4 (n,%) 84 (10.80%) 106 (14.30%) 0.044 15 (4.70%) 21 (7.20%) 0.186 13 (11.20%) 20 (17.50%) 0.170 111 (29.10%) 133 (44.00%) 0.000
IFG (n,%) 34 (4.40%) 72 (9.70%) 0.000 12 (3.70%) 20 (6.80%) 0.084 2 (1.70%) 15 (13.20%) 0.001 22 (5.80%) 29 (9.60%) 0.060
T2DM (n,%) 1 (0.13%) 2 (0.27) 0 0 --- 0 0 --- 2 (0.50%) 1 (0.30%)
  1. BMI, body mass index; T2DM, type 2 diabetes; FBG, fasting blood glucose; fT3/fT4, ratio of free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine; GMT, gamma-glutamyltransferase; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; TG, triglycerides. *Data are described as median, lower and upper quartiles. Chi-test was used. Not calculated due to small number of probands. Data significant at p < 0.05.