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Table 4 Clinical and demographic differences among the geographic regions of Brazil

From: Heterogeneity in the costs of type 1 diabetes in a developing country: what are the determining factors?

  Southeast South North/Northeast Midwest P value
Gender (female), (%) 58 · 5 56 · 3 53 · 1 57 · 6 0 · 087
Ethnicity (Caucasian), (%) 58 · 7 87 · 3 34 · 6 46 · 3 <0 · 001
Age (y)* 22 · 0 ± 12 · 5 23 · 4 ± 12 · 3 20 · 9 ± 9 · 9 21 · 8 ± 11 · 9 0 · 017
Duration of diabetes (y)** 11 · 2 ± 8 · 8 11 · 4 ± 8 · 3 8 · 5 ± 6 · 4 9 · 4 ± 7 · 5 <0 · 001
Level of care*** (tertiary), (%) 93 · 1 94 · 2 34 · 9 24 · 9 <0 · 001
Low or very-low economic status (%)**** 66 · 1 58 · 1 86 · 1 58 · 2 <0 · 001
Prevalence of microvascular complications (%) 22 · 0 23 · 8 14 · 5 18 · 5 0 · 001
Presence of macrovascular complications (%) 5 · 1 3 · 2 2 · 5 2 · 9 0 · 004
  1. SE = Southeast; N/NE = North/Northeast; MW = Midwest.
  2. *p = 0 · 006 (SE vs South), p = 0 · 003 (South vs N/NE).
  3. **p <0 · 001 (SE vs N/NE), p = 0 · 006 (SE vs MW), p <0 · 001 (South vs N/NE), p = 0 · 001 (South vs MW).
  4. ***p <0 · 001 (SE vs N/NE), p <0 · 001 (SE vs MW), p <0 · 001 (South vs N/NE), p <0 · 001 (South vs MW), p = 0 · 007 (N/NE vs MW).
  5. ****p <0 · 001 (N/NE vs MW), p = 0 · 042 (SE vs MW),p <0 · 001 (SE vs N/NE), p <0 · 001 (SE vs South), p = 0 · 02 (South vs MW), p <0 · 001 (N/NE vs South).