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Table 3 Reduced incidence and cancer-related mortality in metformin treated patients

From: Metformin: an old but still the best treatment for type 2 diabetes

Author Study type Tumor type Region Total participants Follow up (years) Confounding adjustment *
Evans [135] Pilot Observational Study Not specified Tayside, Scotland. UK 11,876 8 IMC, smoking, blood pressure, material deprivation
Bodmer [136] Retrospective Case control Breast UK 22,661 10 Age, BMI, smoking, estrogen use, diabetes history, HbA1c, renal failure, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease
Li [137] Prospective case–control Pancreatic USA 1,836 4 Sex, age, smoking, DM-2, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, insulin use, oral antidiabetic medication, IMC, risk factors
Donadon [138] Retrospective Case–control Hepatocellular carcinoma Italy 1,573 12 Sex, age, BMI, alcohol abuse, HBV and HCV infection, DM-2, ALT level
Libby [139] Retrospective cohort study Colorectal Scotland. UK 8,000 9 Sex, age, BMI, HbA1c, deprivation
       Other drug use
  1. *Confounding adjustment: Adjustment of variables that could potentially interfere with cancer incidence.