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Table 2 Baseline metabolic control and quality of life by geographical region

From: Prevalence of diabetes complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with baseline characteristics in the multinational A1chieve study

  All China South Asia East Asia North Africa Middle East Latin America Russia
Patients with macrovascular complications         
HbA1c, %         
  n 12,727 1,332 4,002 1,170 620 3,426 147 2,030
  mean (SD) 9.5 (1.7) 9.1 (2.1) 9.3 (1.2) 9.7 (2.0) 9.6 (1.8) 9.7 (1.7) 9.6 (2.4) 9.6 (1.7)
HbA1c, mmol/mol         
  n 12,727 1,332 4,002 1,170 620 3,426 147 2,030
  mean (SD) 80.3 (18.6) 76.0 (23.0) 78.2 (13.1) 82.5 (21.9) 81.4 (19.7) 82.5 (18.6) 81.4 (26.2) 81.4 (18.6)
FPG before breakfast         
  n 13,603 1,859 4,064 1,431 715 3,143 204 2,187
  mmol/l, mean (SD) 10.7 (3.3) 9.8 (3.6) 10.8 (2.8) 11.2 (4.2) 11.2 (4.2) 11.0 (3.3) 10.7 (4.2) 10.4 (2.6)
  mg/dl, mean (SD) 192.8 (59.6) 176.5 (64.0) 194.2 (50.5) 202.4 (74.9) 201.3 (75.7) 198.0 (60.1) 191.9 (76.5) 187.7 (46.9)
PPG after breakfast         
  n 9,704 1,451 2,984 784 376 2,254 30 1,825
  mmol/l, mean (SD) 14.5 (4.3) 14.0 (4.7) 15.3 (3.7) 15.4 (4.9) 14.7 (5.2) 15.4 (4.4) 13.1 (5.9) 12.2 (3.1)
  mg/dl, mean (SD) 262.0 (77.0) 252.1 (85.4) 275.9 (65.9) 277.0 (87.6) 265.5 (94.0) 278.1 (78.9) 235.1 (105.6) 220.3 (55.6)
Total cholesterol, mmol/l         
  n 7,176 851 466 744 378 2,530 136 2,071
  mean (SD) 5.5 (1.3) 5.1 (1.2) 5.2 (0.8) 5.3 (1.5) 4.6 (1.3) 5.4 (1.2) 5.6 (1.7) 6.1 (1.3)
Triglycerides, mmol/l         
  n 6,732 844 703 637 402 2,524 116 1,506
  mean (SD) 2.1 (1.0) 2.0 (1.3) 2.2 (0.7) 2.0 (1.0) 1.6 (0.9) 2.3 (1.0) 2.4 (1.2) 2.1 (1.0)
Creatinine, μmol/l         
  n 6,865 724 776 627 350 2,370 103 1,915
  mean (SD) 87.7 (32.9) 48.7 (43.6) 96.2 (30.3) 97.6 (35.1) 89.5 (29.6) 95.7 (29.4) 94.5 (28.6) 85.2 (19.5)
HDL-C, mmol/l         
  n 5,602 777 714 539 255 2,283 98 936
  mean (SD) 1.1 (0.4) 1.2 (0.4) 1.0 (0.2) 1.2 (0.5) 1.1 (0.4) 1.0 (0.3) 1.0 (0.3) 1.4 (0.6)
LDL-C, mmol/l         
  n 5,711 794 713 545 238 2,364 94 963
  mean (SD) 3.2 (1.1) 3.0 (1.0) 3.4 (1.0) 3.4 (1.3) 2.8 (1.4) 3.2 (1.0) 3.2 (1.1) 3.4 (1.2)
SBP, mmHg         
  n 13,744 1,552 3,376 1,969 755 3,619 274 2,199
  mean (SD) 141.0 (19.5) 137.2 (18.3) 145.2 (21.0) 133.3 (18.7) 137.8 (20.0) 141.4 (18.9) 131.8 (16.5) 145.7 (16.5)
QoL*         
  n 11,329 1,712 3,611 2,156 676 865 261 2,048
  mean (SD) 60.2 (16.5) 74.4 (13.9) 52.7 (10.6) 66.7 (15.7) 59.4 (17.8) 62.1 (14.9) 63.7 (17.8) 53.5 (16.9)
Patients with microvascular complications         
HbA1c, %         
  n 24,352 3,128 6,673 2,385 1,545 7,726 378 2,517
  mean (SD) 9.6 (1.7) 9.4 (2.3) 9.4 (1.3) 9.7 (2.0) 9.5 (1.8) 9.7 (1.7) 10.1 (2.2) 9.6 (1.7)
HbA1c, mmol/mol         
  n 24,352 3,128 6,673 2,385 1,545 7,726 378 2,517
  mean (SD) 81.4 (18.6) 79.2 (25.1) 79.2 (14.2) 82.5 (21.9) 80.3 (19.7) 82.5 (18.6) 86.9 (24.0) 81.4 (18.6)
FPG before breakfast         
  n 25,986 4,239 6,655 3,015 1,744 7,162 480 2,691
  mmol/l, mean (SD) 10.8 (3.5) 10.0 (3.5) 10.7 (3.0) 11.3 (4.2) 11.1 (4.1) 11.2 (3.5) 11.7 (4.6) 10.4 (2.7)
  mg/dl, mean (SD) 194.5 (62.9) 179.4 (63.6) 193.3 (54.3) 202.8 (75.5) 200.4 (74.5) 201.5 (62.4) 210.5 (83.3) 186.9 (47.7)
PPG after breakfast         
  n 18,300 3,297 4,762 1,657 1,025 5,183 110 2,266
  mmol/l, mean (SD) 14.8 (4.5) 13.8 (4.8) 15.5 (3.9) 15.6 (5.0) 14.8 (4.7) 15.5 (4.4) 15.6 (6.0) 12.1 (3.0)
  mg/dl, mean (SD) 265.8 (80.3) 249.4 (86.7) 279.0 (69.7) 281.5 (89.3) 265.7 (84.6) 279.6 (80.1) 281.4 (107.3) 218.3 (54.9)
Total cholesterol, mmol/l         
  n 13,795 2,005 812 1,509 993 5,590 334 2,552
  mean (SD) 5.4 (1.3) 5.1 (1.3) 5.1 (0.8) 5.3 (1.4) 4.7 (1.3) 5.3 (1.2) 5.8 (1.6) 6.0 (1.3)
Triglycerides, mmol/l         
  n 13,356 1,970 1,371 1,257 1,030 5,572 290 1,866
  mean (SD) 2.1 (1.1) 2.1 (1.3) 2.1 (0.8) 2.0 (1.1) 1.6 (0.9) 2.2 (1.0) 2.5 (1.3) 2.1 (1.0)
Creatinine, μmol/l         
  n 13,399 1,779 1,482 1,185 893 5,440 261 2,359
  mean (SD) 83.5 (32.7) 52.3 (42.3) 89.9 (27.9) 95.8 (37.9) 85.0 (28.2) 88.2 (28.6) 89.2 (26.4) 84.8 (19.1)
HDL-C, mmol/l         
  n 11,472 1,823 1,398 1,083 678 5,067 234 1,189
  mean (SD) 1.1 (0.4) 1.2 (0.4) 1.0 (0.2) 1.2 (0.4) 1.1 (0.4) 1.1 (0.3) 1.0 (0.3) 1.4 (0.6)
LDL-C, mmol/l         
  n 11,580 1,852 1,379 1,090 646 5,185 217 1,211
  mean (SD) 3.2 (1.1) 3.1 (1.1) 3.1 (0.9) 3.2 (1.2) 2.9 (1.4) 3.2 (1.0) 3.2 (1.1) 3.3 (1.1)
SBP, mmHg         
  n 26,661 3,487 5,656 4,022 1,899 8,282 614 2,701
  mean (SD) 137.3 (18.7) 134.9 (17.5) 141.4 (21.0) 132.0 (17.9) 135.2 (18.8) 137.1 (17.4) 131.5 (17.2) 143.1 (16.8)
QoL*         
  n 21,166 3,947 6,103 4,489 1,741 1,805 555 2,526
  mean (SD) 62.3 (16.9) 75.2 (13.8) 52.8 (11.1) 67.9 (16.0) 61.1 (17.5) 64.1 (15.5) 64.8 (18.3) 54.3 (17.0)
  1. Note: due to the observational nature of this study, not all baseline data were recorded.
  2. *EQ-5D™ (100 = best imaginable health; 0 = worst imaginable health) [20].