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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients and the presence of peripheral arterial disease

From: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with peripheral artery disease

  With PAD Without PAD P
n 24 43 -
Systolic ankle-brachial BP index 0.77 ± 0.09 0.98 ± 0.07 -
Age (years) 65.8 ± 6.8 63.2 ± 8.3 0.189*
Male 12 (50%) 16 (37%) 0.309δ
DM duration (years) 20.2 ± 7.1 15.2 ± 7.9 0.008*
Smoking 7 (29%) 10 (23%) 0.632δ
Body mass index (kg/m2) 30.1 ± 4.6 29.7 ± 4.8 0.773*
Waist-to- hip-ratio 0.98 ± 0.09 0.93 ± 0.08 0.059*
Diabetes treatment    
  Oral agents 6 (25%) 20 (46%) 0.083δ
  Insulin (with or without oral agents) 18 (75%) 23 (53%) 0.083δ
  Insulin dose (U/day) 46.9 ± 19.8 46.2 ± 18.9 0.645*
Hypertension 23 (95%) 33 (76%) 0.043δ
Hypertension treatment    
   ACE inhibitors 4 (16%) 14 (32%) 0.224δ
   Diuretics 5 (21%) 12 (28%) 0.682δ
   Calcium channel blockers 10 (42%) 14 (32% 0.498δ
   Beta blockers 5 (21%) 4 (9%) 0.229δ
Peripheral neuropathy 17 (70%) 16 (37%) 0.011δ
Autonomic neuropathy 20 (83%) 28 (65%) 0.113δ
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 210.2 ± 70.5 176.3 ± 70.3 0.063*
HbA1C test (%) 7.9 ± 1.7 6.7 ± 1.6 0.010*
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 222.6 ± 50.9 214.6 ± 45.2 0.511*
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 46.2 ± 26.9 45.6 ± 10 0.896*
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 164.5 (812) 134 (400) 0.097#
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 1.1 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.9 0.858*
24-h UAE (μg/min) 90.3 (5560) 8.7 (2345) 0.000#
  1. Data expressed as mean ± SD, median (range), or number of patients with the characteristic (%); PAD = peripheral arterial disease: BP = blood pressure.
  2. Autonomic neuropathy: defined according to conventional autonomic cardiovascular function tests: two out five abnormal tests [8]. *Student’s t-test; # Mann-Whitney’s U test; δ Chi-square test.