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Table 1 Study subjects

From: Anti-diabetic treatment regulates pro-fibrotic TGF-β serum levels in type 2 diabetics

  C S + M G + M D + M
Participants 20 21 20 19
Ratio male/female 12/8 16/5 15/5 11/8
Age [a] 65 ± 1.33 64 ± 1.5 65 ± 1.58 62 ± 1.92
Duration of diabetes [a] - 7.9 ± 0.9 8.7 ± 1.3 6.8 ± 0.9
BMI 27.1 ± 3.5 31.6 ± 2.9 30.8 ± 2.9 30.2 ± 3.3
HbA1c 5.6 ± 0.3 7.0 ± 0.5 7.2 ± 0.2 6.6 ± 0.4
Basal glucose [mg/dl] 100.1 ± 1.5 148.0 ± 3.9*** 146.0 ± 5.1*** 144.3 ± 5.1***
Basal insulin [pmol/l] 9.02 ± 0.87 17.23 ± 1.63*** 10.64 ± 1.59°° 11.70 ± 0.90°
Basal proinsulin [pmol/l] 5.26 ± 0.39 16.37 ± 1.45*** 9.378 ± 0.97*/°°° 6.878 ± 0.49°°°
  1. ***p < 0.001 as compared to healthy controls.
  2. °p < 0.05 °°p < 0.01 °°°p < 0.001 as compared to “S+M” group.