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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies in Type 1 diabetic pediatrics

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on glucose control in diabetes

Study Country Duration N Intervention CGM Use SMBG Use Main Outcomes
Chase [28] USA 3 months 11 The MiniMed CGM vs. SMBG 18 total sensor days within 30- day (total 6 times) + 4 times SMBG tests Minimum of 4 daily SMBG tests • HbA1c
I:5 • Number of hypoglycemic events
C:6 • Number of insulin dosage changes
• Fear of hypoglycemia
Deiss [23] Germany 3 months 30 The MiniMed CGM vs. SMBG 3 days of CGM every 6 weeks over 12 weeks. (total 2 times) (once open, once blinded) + at least 5 times SMBG tests At least 5 times per day • HbA1c
I:15
C:15
Lagarde [24] USA 6 months 27 RT-CGM vs. SMBG 3 days of CGM (Open) every 2 months. (total 3 times) +Usual practice of monitoring BG 3 days of CGM (Blinded) at 0,2, and 4 months + • HbA1c
I:18 • AUC for glucose < 70 mg/dL
C:9 Usual practice of monitoring BG • Duration and severity of hypoglycemia
before meals, at bedtime and at 2:00 hours once weekly. before meals, at bedtime and at 2:00 hours once weekly.  
Yates [25] Australia 3 months 36 The MiniMed CGMvs.SMBG 3 days of CGM every 3 weeks over 3 months (total 4 times) + at least 4 times SMBG 4 to 6 times daily • HbA1c
I: 19 • Fructosamine
C:17
JDRF [26] England 26 weeks 114 CGMS Use the device on a daily basis + 4times SMBG At least 4 times daily • HbA1c
  I:56 (DexCom or Medtronic or FreeStyle Navigator) vs. SMBG • The amount of time in hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic per day
C:58 • relative reduction of 10% or more in the mean glycated hemoglobin level
Bergenstal [14] England 12 months 156 CGM (Minimed paradigm) Vs. SMBG (Sensor augmented pump vs. MDI) 1-week period/ 6 months + SMBG Sensor glucose values are collected for 1 week periods at Baseline, 6 months and 1 years (Not Display data) • HbA1c
I: 78 • Severe rates of hypoglycemia
C: 78
Kondonouri [27] France 12 months 154 CGM (MiniMed paradigm) vs. SMBG Use on a daily basis, replace the sensors every 3 days + SMBG (at least 4 times/day) At least 4 times daily • HbA1c
I: 76
C: 78
Battelino [15] Slovenia 6 month 72 CGM (Guardian REAL-Time) vs. SMBG Used on a daily basis + SMBG SMBG • HbA1c
I/C:37 • Changes in glycaemic patterns
C/I:35 • Changes in the time spent in hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and euglycaemia
Bukara-Radujkovic [29] BosniaHerzegovina 6 months 80 CGM (Medtronic Minimed) vs. SMBG 3 days of CGM (only one time) + at least 4 daily SMBG (before and after each main meal, at bedtime and during the night at 2 a.m and 5 a.m) At least 4 daily SMBG (before and after each main meal, at bedtime and during the night at 2 a.m and 5 a.m) • HbA1c
I: 40 • Average SMBG values
C: 40 • Numbers of hypo- and hyperglycemic events.
Mauras [30] USA 26 weeks 137 CGM (FreeStyle Navigator) vs. Usual care Use CGM on a daily basis (Open) + ≥ 4 times SMBG Use CGM on a daily basis (Blinded) + ≥ 4 times SMBG • Decrease in HbA1c of ≥ 0.5% from baseline to 26 weeks with no severe hypoglycemia
    I: 69     
    C: 68     
  1. Abbreviations: AUC area under the curve, BG blood glucose, CGM continuous glucose monitoring, HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c, JDRF Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, MDI multiple daily injection, RT-CGM real-time CGM, SMBG self monitoring of blood glucose.