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Table 3 Hazards ratios for diabetes according to obesity levels, adjusting for insulin prior to inflammation markers

From: Chronic inflammation role in the obesity-diabetes association: a case-cohort study

  Main exposure
  Overweighta Obesityb Waist circumference 4thquartilec
  HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI)
Model 1 2.07 (1.45–2.95) 6.43 (4.48–9.21) 8.30 (5.60–12.28)
Model 1’ 1.27 (0.87–1.86 2.67 (1.73–4.13) 3.63 (2.28–5.78)
Model 2 1.23 (0.84–1.81) 2.51 (1.63–3.88) 3.43 (2.16–5.46)
Model 3 1.09 (0.74–1.60) 1.85 (1.20–2.86) 2.54 (1.58–4.08)
Model 4 1.29 (0.86–1.94) 2.48 (1.52–4.05) 4.10 (2.34–7.20)
Model 5 1.17 (0.78–1.76) 2.26 (1.37–3.73) 3.19 (1.58–6.45)
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for age, study center, ethnicity, gender, and family history of diabetes.
  2. Model 1’: Model 1 + ln-insulin.
  3. Model 2: Model 1’ + adiponectin.
  4. Model 3: Model 2 + inflammation score, C3; oxidized LDL, ICAM-1.
  5. Model 4: Model 3 + leptin (gender-specific quartiles).
  6. Model 5: Model 4 + hypertension, non-esterified fatty acids, ln-triglycerides, ln-triglycerides2, HDL, BMI, BMI2, waist-to-hip ratio, (those not already in the model).
  7. a Hazards ratio of overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2) versus BMI < 25 kg/m2.
  8. b Hazards ratio of obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) versus BMI < 25 kg/m2.
  9. c 4th vs. 1st quartile. In men: waist circumference >102 cm vs. <91 cm; in women: waist circumference >101 cm vs. <84 cm.