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Table 2 Hazards ratios for diabetes according to obesity and insulin levels, considering possible mediators and confounders

From: Chronic inflammation role in the obesity-diabetes association: a case-cohort study

  Main exposure
  Overweighta Obesityb Waist circumference 4thquartilec Insulin 4thquartiled
  HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI)
Model 1 2.07 (1.45–2.95) 6.43 (4.48–9.21) 8.30 (5.60–12.28) 10.71 (6.20–18.51)
Model 2 1.72 (1.20–2.48) 4.69 (3.23–6.81) 6.27 (4.18–9.40) 6.90 (3.87–12.32)
Model 3 1.45 (1.00–2.11) 3.18 (2.14–4.73) 4.23 (2.76–6.49) 4.44 (2.45–8.04)
Model 4 1.46 (0.98–2.17) 3.21 (2.01–5.14) 5.08 (2.97–8.71) 4.56 (2.38–8.73)
Model 5 1.17 (0.78–1.76) 2.26 (1.37–3.73) 3.19 (1.58–6.45) 3.42 (1.75–6.71)
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for age, study center, ethnicity, gender, and family history of diabetes.
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + adiponectin.
  3. Model 3: Model 2 + inflammation score, C3; oxidized LDL, ICAM-1.
  4. Model 4: Model 3 + leptin (gender-specific quartiles).
  5. Model 5: Model 4 + hypertension, non-esterified fatty acids, ln-triglycerides, ln-triglycerides2, HDL-cholesterol, BMI, BMI2, waist-to-hip ratio, ln-insulin (those not already in the model).
  6. a Hazards ratio of overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2) versus BMI < 25 kg/m2.
  7. b Hazards ratio of obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) versus BMI < 25 kg/m2.
  8. c 4th vs. 1st quartile. In men: waist circumference >102 cm vs. <91 cm; in women: waist circumference >101 cm vs. <84 cm.
  9. d 4th vs. 1st quartile: >13 μu/mL vs. < 5 μu/mL.