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Table 1 Clinical and demographic data of the study population according to geographic region

From: Regional differences in clinical care among patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group

Variable Southeast South North/ Northeast Mid-west P Value
N(%) 1,424 (39.7) 820 (22.8) 1,113 (31.0) 234 (6.5)  
Gender, F (%) 821 (57.7) 461 (56.2) 593 (53.3) 135 (57.7) 0.21
Age, y 21.6 ± 12.4 22.3 ± 12.2 19.9 ± 10.1 21.2 ± 11.9 <0.001
Age, y (%)      0.19
  0–5.9 57 (4) 18 (2.2) 41 (3.7) 14 (6.0)  
  6–12.9 279 (19.6) 148 (18.0) 239 (21.5) 56 (23.9)  
  13–18.9 370 (26.0) 225 (27.4) 296 (26.6) 40 (17.1)  
  ≥19.0 719 (50.4) 429 (52.3) 537 (48.2) 124 (53.0)  
Age at diagnosis, y (%)      <0.001
  0–4.9 318 (22.3) 133 (16.2) 169 (15.2) 47 (20.1)  
  5–9.9 401 (28.2) 227 (27.7) 280 (25.2) 53 (22.6)  
  10–14.9 370 (26.0) 243 (29.6) 285 (25.6) 43 (18.4)  
  15-19.9 160 (11.2) 103 (12.6) 186 (16.7) 43 (18.4)  
  20–29.9 121 (8.5) 82 (10.0) 160 (14.4) 41 (17.5)
  ≥30 54 (3.8) 32 (3.9) 33 (3.0) 7 (3.0)
Ethnicity, n (%)      <0.001
  Caucasian 830 (58.9) 716 (87.3) 383 (34.4) 111 (47.4)  
  Non-Caucasian* 585 (41.1) 104 (12.7) 730 (65.6) 123 (52.6)  
Economic status**      <0.001
  High 98 (7.2) 82 (10.2) 36 (3.4) 24 (10.9)  
  Medium 361(26.4) 248 (30.9) 101 (9.4) 63 (28.6)  
  Low 496 (36.3) 311 (38.1) 302 (28.2) 68 (30.9)  
  Very low 412 (30.1) 161 (20.1) 633 (59.0) 65 (29.5)  
Years of Study 9.7 ± 4.5 9.5 ± 3.9 9.9 ± 4.5 10.5 ± 5.2 0.01
Duration of diabetes, y 10.7 ± 8.8 10.6 ± 8.4 7.6 ± 6.4†† 8.6 ± 7.5†† <0.001
Treatment of diabetes n(%)      
Insulin ***      <0.001
  Intermediate or long acting 157 (11) 49 (6.0) 291 (26.2) 62 (26.5)  
  CSII**** 23 (1.6) 10 (1.2) 2 (0.2) 4 (1.7)  
Intermediate/long plus short acting 1,241 (87.3) 761 (92.8) 819 (73.7) 168 (71.8)  
Short acting shots ≥ 3 /day 832 (64.7) 570 (73.0) 408 (48.7) 103 (50.9) <0.001
SBGM, yes (%) 1,331(93.5) 763 (93.0) 853 (76.6) ††† 221 (94.4)  
Specialist visits in the prior, y 1,424(99.0) 819 (99.8) 1,097 (98.5) 226 (96.6) 0.3
Level of care n (%)      
  Secondary 101(7.1) 45 (5.5) 678 (60.9) 171(73.1) <0.001
  Tertiary 1,323(92.9) 775(94.5) 435 (39.1)# 63(26.9)#  
  1. The data are presented as the means (SD) and n (%); y = years; f = female, SBGM = self-blood glucose monitoring. p<0.01 vs. each other region; ††P<0.05 vs. each other region; ††† p<0.001 vs. each other region # P< 0.01 vs. south and southeast regions.
  2. * African-Brazilians, Mulattos, Asians, Native Aborigines.
  3. ** Data not available from 130 (3.6%) patients *** Data not available from 4 (0.001%) patients.
  4. ****CSII: continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.
  5. For comparison between continuous variables ANOVA with Sidak correction were used; For comparison between discrete variables two-sided z-tests with correction was used.