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Table 3 Analysis of factors associated with anxiety and depression among the study participants

From: Difference between the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in non-diabetic smokers and in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without nicotine dependence

Variables n HAD-A ≥ 8 score p-value OR # (95% CI) HAD-D ≥ 8 score p-value OR # (CI 95%)
   n (%)    n (%)   
Marital status        
Non-married 42 24 (57.1) 0.320 1.0 13 (31.0) 0.611 1.0
Married 96 46 (47.9)   0.69 (0.33 to 1.43) 34 (35.4)   1.22 (0.56 to 2.66)
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30)        
No 90 43 (47.8) 0.344 1.0 32 (35.6) 0.611 1.0
Yes 48 27 (56.3)   1.41 (0.69 to 2.84) 15 (31.3)   0.82 (0.39 to 1.74)
Use of anxiolytics        
No 123 61 (49.6) 0.290 1.0 40 (32.5) 0.192 1.0
Yes 15 9 (60.0)   1.86 (0.59 to 5.86) 7 (46.7)   2.10 (0.69 to 6.39)
Use of antihypertensives 64 33 (51.6) 0.855 1.0 18 (28.1) 0.173 1.0
No 74 37 (50.0)   0.94 (0.48 to 1.83) 29 (39.2)   1.65 (0.8 to 3.37)
Yes        
Treatment of T2D*        
With insulin 63 28 (44.4) 0.973 1.0 23 (36.5) 0.609 1.0
Without insulin 29 13 (44.8)   1.02 (0.42 to 2.46) 9 (31.0)   0.78 (0.31 to 2.0)
Smoking family history        
Non-smoking parents 33 12 (36.4) 0.062 1.0 11 (33.3) 0.920 1.0
Mother, Father, or both smoked 105 58 (55.2)   2.16 (0.96 to 4.84) 36 (34.3)   1.04 (0.46 to 2.39)
Smoking habit        
Non-smokers 46 18 (39.1) 0.056 1.0 18 (39.1) 0.375 1.0
Smokers 92 52 (56.5)   2.02 (0.98 to 4.16) 29 (31.5)   0.72 (0.34 to 1.50)
Nicotine dependence**        
Low or medium 57 33 (57.9) 0.735 1.0 16 (28.1) 0.364 1.0
High (FTND score ≥ 6) 35 19 (54.3)   0.86 (0.37 to 2.02) 13 (37.1)   1.51 (0.62 to 3.71)
Alcohol consumption:        
No or ≤ monthly 106 60 (56.6) 0.014 1.0 39 (36.8) 0.221 1.0
Daily or weekly 32 10 (31.2)   0.35 (0.15 to 0.81) 8 (25.0)   0.57 (0.23 to 1.40)
Length of schooling:        
< 8 years 82 45 (54.9) 0.239 1.0 24 (29.3) 0.152 1.0
≥ 8 years 56 25 (44.6)   0.66 (0.33 to 1.31) 23 (41.1)   1.68 (0.82 to 3.44)
Gender:        
Male 69 22 (31.9) < 0.001 1.0 16 (23.2) 0.008 1.0
Female 69 48 (69.6)   4.88 (2.38 to 10.04) 31 (44.9)   2.70 (1.30 to 5.63)
Physical Activity        
No or ≤ 1x/week 80 45 (56.2) 0.129 1.0 25 (31.2) 0.414 1.0
From 2 to 5x/week 58 25 (43.1)   0.59 (0.30 to 1.17) 22 (37.9)   1.34 (0.66 to 2.74)
  1. * Diabetic patients. ** Smoking patients # Logistic regression.