Skip to main content

Table 1 Prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in diabetic smokers (DS), diabetic non-smokers (D), and non-diabetic smokers (S)

From: Difference between the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in non-diabetic smokers and in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without nicotine dependence

HAD scale DS (n = 46) D (n = 46) S (n = 46) p-value
HAD-A score (average ± SD) 7.98 ± 4.07 7.37 ± 5.14 8.80 ± 4.58 0.330 *
HAD-A score ≥ 8 (n/%) 23 (50.0%) 18 (39.1%) 29 (63.0%) 0.072 #
 · Men 9 (19.6%) 2 (4.3%) 11 (23.9%) 0.011 #
 · Women 14 (30.4%) 16 (34.8%) 18 (39.1%) 0.440 #
HAD-D score (average ± SD) 6.17 ± 3.58 6.74 ± 4.60 5.74 ± 4.18 0.516 *
HAD-D score ≥ 8 (n/%) 14 (30.4%) 18 (39.1%) 15 (32.6%) 0.657 #
 · Men 5 (10.9%) 6 (13%) 5 (10.9%) 0.922 #
 · Women 9 (19.5%) 12 (26.1%) 10 (21.7%) 0.664 #
  1. *Analysis of variance; # chi-squared test.