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Table 2 Comparisons of clinical characteristics between the patients with DR and without DR

From: Predictors for diabetic retinopathy in normoalbuminuric people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Clinical characteristics No DR (n = 246) DR (n = 64) P value
Age, years 53 ± 13 61 ± 12 < 0.001
Female, n (%) 114 (46.3) 43 (67.2) 0.003
BMI, kg/m2 25.0 ± 3.7 23.9 ± 3.0 0.022
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 127 ± 14 132 ± 17 0.018
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 77 ± 10 77 ± 9 0.836
Duration of diabetes, months 17 (1–75) 117 (60–191) < 0.001
Serum creatinine, mg/dL 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.2 0.797
Estimated GFR, ml/min/1.73 m2 99 ± 25 89 ± 22 0.003
Hemoglobin, g/dL 13.9 ± 1.8 12.6 ± 1.7 < 0.001
Serum albumin, g/dL 4.4 ± 0.4 4.3 ± 0.4 0.111
Serum total cholesterol, mg/dL 187 ± 42 174 ± 44 0.049
Serum triglyceride, mg/dL 167 ± 119 181 ± 132 0.411
Serum HDL, mg/dL 51 ± 14 48 ± 17 0.076
Serum uric acid, mg/dL 4.3 ± 1.4 4.5 ± 1.6 0.550
Urinary albumin excretion, μg/min 5.92 ± 3.50 8.97 ± 5.07 < 0.001
Hemoglobin A1c 9.2 ± 2.5 9.1 ± 1.9 0.741
HOMA-IR 3.4 ± 4.6 4.0 ± 4.3 0.347
Lipoprotein (a), (IU/L) 135 (46–341) 171 (42–387) 0.496
hs-CRP, mg/dL 0.2 (0.1-0.9) 0.2 (0.1-0.7) 0.854
Use of RAS inhibitors, n (%) 68 (27.6) 33 (51.6) < 0.001
  1. Values are expressed as means ± SDs, medians (interquartile range) or n(%).
  2. Abbreviations: DR diabetic retinopathy, BMI body mass index, GFR glomerular filtration rate, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR homeostasis model for insulin resistance, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, RAS renin-angiotensin system.