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Table 2 Mean HbA1c before and 4 years after carbohydrate reduction in type 1 diabetes in groups with different degrees of adherence

From: Low carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes, long-term improvement and adherence: A clinical audit

§Group n % start 3 mo. 4 years *Change % !p
All 48 100 7.6 ± 1.0 6.3 ± 0.7 6.9 ± 1.0 -0.7 ± 1.1 -8.4 ± 13 <0.001
B 25 52 7.5 ± 1.1 6.5 ± 0.8 7.4 ± 0.9 -0.1 ± 0.3 -0.7 ± 11 0.7
C + D 23 48 7.7 ± 1.0 6.4 ± 0.9 6.4 ± 0.8 -1.3 ± 0.9 -16 ± 10 <0.001
C 10 21 7.6 ± 1.0 6.3 ± 0.8 6.9 ± 0.8 -0.7 ± 0.4 -8.8 ± 4 <0.001
D 13 27 7.8 ± 1.0 6.5 ± 0.8 6.0 ± 0.6 -1.8 ± 0.9 -22.4 ± 8 <0.001
  1. § A: all patients. B: non-adherent patients. C: partly adherent with intra-person variations over time. D: with initial high HbA1c and excellent adherence. * The HbA1c change between start and 4 years in HbA1c units. ! P-values are for differences between start and 4 years.
  2. Carbohydrates (mostly starch) were reduced to 75 g/day or lower. Insulin doses adapted to the quantity of carbohydrates.