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Table 1 Description of the included studies

From: Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors (reference), year,
Country
Study design Study description Parameters studies Formulation
and Dose
Other tested
substances
Significant outcomes
Afkhami-Ardekani et al., [19] 2008, Iran R, DB, P; T2DM (n=40); age 52.7 8.6year;
2 groups; 612weeks;
BMI; SBP; DBP; FBG; 2-h PPBS;
HbA1c; TG; TC; HDL-c;
LDL-c; Urea; Creatinine; ALT; AST
ZnSO4;
660mg/day#
None Reduction in TG, TC, LDL
and HbA1C
Al-Maroof et al., [20] 2006, Iraq R, B, P; T2DM (n=86); age 54.6 9.2year;
2 groups; 3months
HbA1c; FBG ZnSO4;
30mg/day*
None Reduction in HbA1C
Anderson et al., [27] 2001, Tunisia R, DB, P; T2DM (n=110); age 57.9 6.2year;
4 groups; 6months
Plasma and Urinary Zinc;
Antioxidant effects
Zn gluconate;
30mg/day#
Chromium Positive antioxidant effect
Blostein-Fujii et al., [38] 1997, USA R, B, P; T2DM (n=60); age 60.0 12.0year;
2 groups; 3weeks
Plasma Zinc; 5-nucleotidase;
lipoprotein oxidation; IGF-1
30mg/day# None Raised IGF-1
(only if low at initiation)
De Sena et al., [39] 2005, Brazil Casecontrol; T1DM (n=37); age 4.1 16.5year;
2 groups; 4months
FBG; HbA1c; Urine sugar;
Plasma and red cell Zn
7.5-15mg/day* None Increased erythrocyte
Zinc concentration
Farvid et al., [28] 2011, Iran R, DB, P; T2DM (n=67); age 52.5 8.2year;
3 groups; 4months
Plasma Zinc; FBG; HbA1c;
Fructosamine; Antioxidant effects;
Neuropathy symptoms;
Nerve conduction; Peripheral blood flow
ZnSO4;
20mg/day*
Mg2+; Vitamin B1,B2,
B6,B12, C,E; Folate
Reduced severity of neuropathy
symptoms in patients with
mild-moderate neuropathy
Farvid et al., [29] 2005, Iran R, DB, P; T2DM (n=69); age 50.0 9.0year;
4 groups; 3months
Plasma and Urinary Zinc; SBP;
DBP; MAP; FBG; HbA1c; TC;
TG; HDL-c; LDL-c; Apo-A1;
Apo B; Fructosamine;
Urinary Microalbumin and protein
ZnSO4;
30mg/day*
Mg2+; Vitamin C,E Lowered urinary
albumin excretion
Farvid et al., [30] 2004a, Iran R, DB, P; T2DM (n=69); age 50.3 8.2year;
4 groups; 3months
Plasma and Urinary Zinc; SBP;
DBP; MAP
ZnSO4;
30mg/day*
Mg2+; Vitamin C,E Combination of vitamins and
minerals decreases blood pressure
Farvid et al., [31] 2004b, Iran R, DB, P; T2DM (n=69); age 50.3 8.2year;
4 groups; 3months
Plasma and Urinary Zinc; TC;
HDL-c; LDL-c; TG; Apo-A1; Apo B
ZnSO4;
30mg/day*
Mg2+; Vitamin C,E co-supplementation of Mg, Zn,
Vitamins C and E,
increases HDL and Apo-A1
Faure et al., [17] 1995, France Casecontrol; T1DM (n=18); age 32.2 8.1year;
2 groups; 3months
Plasma Zinc; Antioxidant effects Zn gluconate;
30mg/day*
None Reduced lipid peroxidation
Garcia-Medina et al., [32] 2011, Spain R; P; T2DM (n=97); age 54.8 11.6year;
2 groups; 60months
Antioxidant effects; Visual acuity;
Slit-lamp examination; IOP;
Fundoscopy
27mg/day* Cu2+, Mn2+, Se2+,
Vitamin C, E, Niacin
Retardation of retinopathy
progression; improved antioxidant
status
Gunasekara et al., [33] 2011, Sri Lanka R, B, P; T2DM (n=96); age 53.4 7.2year;
3 groups; 4months
FBG; 2-h PPBS; HbA1c;
Creatinine; Insulin; Plasma and
Urinary Zinc; TC; TG; HDL-c; LDL-c
ZnSO4;
22mg/day*
Mg2+, Cu2+, Se2+,
Multivitamin
Reduced HbA1C, FBG, 2-h PPBS,
TC and TC/HDL ration.
Gupta et al., [40] 1998, India R, DB, P; T2DM (n=50); age 49.9 11.0year;
3 groups; 6weeks
Plasma Zinc; FBG; 2-h PPBS;
Nerve conduction tests
ZnSO4;
660mg/day#
None Reduced FBG and 2h-PPBS,
improved motor nerve conduction
velocity
Hayee et al., [41]
2005, Bangladesh
R, DB, P; T2DM (n=60); age 50.9 11.1year;
3 groups; 6weeks
Plasma Zinc; FBG; 2-h PPBS;
Nerve conduction tests
ZnSO4;
660mg/day#
None Reduced FBG and 2h-PPBS,
improved motor nerve conduction
velocity
Hegazi et al., [42]
1992, Egypt
Casecontrol; T2DM (n=56); age 26 62year;
2 groups; 3weeks
FBG; Plasma Zinc; Insulin; Glucagon;
Glucose-6-Phosphatase
Zn3(PO4)2;
28mg/day#
None Increased serum Insulin. Reduced
FBG and Glucagon
Heidarian et al., [43]
2009, Iran
R, DB, C; T2DM (n=50); age 53.2 9.2year;
2 groups; 3months
Plasma Zinc; Folate;
Vitamin B12; Homocysteine
ZnSO4;
30mg/day#
None Reduced serum Homocysteine,
increase folate and Vitamin B12
Hussain et al., [34] 2006, Iraq R, DB, P; T2DM (n=46); age 49.1 6.0year;
3 groups; 3months
FBG; 2-h PPBS; HbA1c;
C-Peptide
Zn acetate;
50mg/day#
Melatonin Reduced FBG and 2-h PPBS
Kadhim et al., [35]
2006, Iraq
R, DB, P; T2DM (n=46); age 49.1 6.0year;
3 groups; 3months
TC; TG; HDL-c; LDL-c;
Creatinine; Urea; Urinary
Microalbumin
Zn acetate;
50mg/day#
Melatonin Reduced TC, TG and LDL
Niewoehner et al., [44]
1986, USA
Cohort study; T2DM (n=13); age 61.0 2.0year;
2 groups; 68weeks
Plasma Zinc; HbA1c;
Immune function
ZnSO4;
660mg/day#
None No beneficial effects observed
Parham et al., [36]
2008, Iran
R, DB, C; T2DM (n=39); age 53.2 9.2year;
2 groups; 6months
FBG; HbA1c; GFR; SBP; DBP;
TC; TG; HDL-c; LDL-c;
Urinary Albumin; Plasma Zinc
ZnSO4;
30mg/day*
None Reduced urinary albumin excretion
Partida-Hernndez et al., [37]
2006, Mexico
R, DB, C; T2DM (n=27); age 35 65year;
2 groups; 4months
FBG; HbA1c; Plasma Zinc; TG;
TC; LDL-c; HDL-c
ZnSO4;
100mg/day#
None Reduced TC and TG.
Increased HDL
Raz et al., [45]
1989, Israel
Cohort study; T2DM (n=13); age 55.0 2.4year;
1 group; 2months
Plasma Zinc; FBG; Fructosamine;
HbA1c; TC; TG; HDL-c;
immune function; IV GTT
ZnSO4;
660mg/day#
None Increased glucose intolerance
Roussel et al., [46]
2003, Tunisia
R, DB, P; T2DM (n=56); age 53.6 1.5year;
2 groups; 6months
Plasma and Urinary Zinc;
Antioxidant effects
Zn gluconate
30mg/day*
None Positive antioxidant effect
Seet et al., [47]
2011, Singapore
R, B, P; T2DM (n=40); age 56.0 7.5year;
2 groups; 3months
FBG; Insulin; TC; LDL-c; HDL-c;
TAG; PAF-AH; PLA2
Zn gluconate;
240mg/day#
None No beneficial effects observed
Shidfar et al., [18]
2010, Iran
R, DB, P; T1DM (n=48); age 720year;
2 groups; 3months
BMI; Apo A-1 and B; FBG; Insulin ZnSO4;
10mg/day*
Vitamin A Increase in serum Apo-A1 and
Decrease in Apo-B/Apo-A1 ratio
  1. ALT-Alanine Aminotransferase; AST-Aspartate Aminotransferase; BMI-Body Mass Index; B-Single blinded; C-Cross over; DB-Double Blinded; FBG-Fasting Blood Glucose; HbA1c-Glycated haemoglobin; HDL-c-High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol; IGF1-Insulin Like Growth Factor-1; IOP-Intra Ocular Pressure; IV GTT-Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test; LDL-c-Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol; MAP-Mean Arterial Pressure; P-Parallel; RRandomized; T1DM-Type 1 Diabetes; T2DM Type 2 Diabetes; TC-Total Cholesterol; TG-Triglycerides;
  2. Age presented as meanSD in years where data were available and as age range in other studies; * - Elemental Zinc dose supplemented per day, # - Dosage given as formulations