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Table 1 Demographic, anthropometric, dietary and biochemical characteristics of the sample according to CAD risk score classification in free-living adults

From: Metabolic syndrome and dietary components are associated with coronary artery disease risk score in free-living adults: a cross-sectional study

  Low Risk Intermediate Risk High Risk
Age (years) 52.1 ± 8.9a 59.4 ± 8.1b 56.6 ± 9.9b
BMI (kg/m2) 28.3 ± 5.1a 28.8 ± 4.6a 29.1 ± 5.0a
% Body Fat 32.4 ± 8.8a 30.3 ± 6.9a 31.9 ± 7.6a
Waist circumference (cm) 94.6 ± 12.3a 100.6 ± 14.0b 100.0 ± 13.2b
Muscle Mass Index (kg/m2) 8.1 ± 1.4a 9.3 ± 1.7b 8.4 ± 1.5a
Total energy intake (kcal) 1538 ± 484a 1600 ± 470a 1920 ± 912b
HEI (points) 84.3 ± 13.6a 83.0 ± 11.6a 83.6 ± 16.6a
Carbohydrates (% of energy) 51.6 ± 8.8a 54.3 ± 9.6a 52.5 ± 7.9a
Proteins (% of energy) 18.7 ± 5.1a 19.9 ± 4.3a 18.2 ± 5.8a
Proteins (g/kg weight) 1.0 ± 0.4a 0.9 ± 0.3a 1.0 ± 0.4a
Lipids (% of energy) 29.9 ± 8.7a 27.2 ± 9.5a 29.1 ± 6.1a
SFA (% of energy) 8.3 ± 3.8a 6.2 ± 2.3a 7.2 ± 3.3a
MUFA (% of energy) 9.0 ± 3.7a 8.3 ± 3.8a 8.6 ± 2.5a
PUFA (% of energy) 6.9 ± 3.7a 7.8 ± 4.7a 7.9 ± 3.0a
Cholesterol (mg) 162.6 ± 103.6a 147.7 ± 70.5a 206.0 ± 140.6a
Fibers (g) 13.2 ± 7.5a 16.0 ± 8.8a 16.1 ± 9.0a
Cereal (portions) 3.3 ± 1.5a 3.5 ± 1.0a 3.8 ± 1.4a
Fruit (portions) 3.3 ± 3.0a 3.8 ± 3.5a 2.7 ± 3.0a
Vegetables (portions) 2.4 ± 2.3a 3.3 ± 2.9a 3.2 ± 4.2a
Legumes (portions) 0.8 ± 1.1a 1.5 ± 1.7b 1.5 ± 2.5b
Dairy Products (portions) 1.8 ± 1.3a 1.5 ± 1.1a 2.0 ± 1.6a
Meat (portions) 1.8 ± 1.3a 1.8 ± 1.2a 1.8 ± 1.0a
Sugar (portions) 1.7 ± 1.8a 1.9 ± 2.5a 1.8 ± 3.2a
Oil (portions) 2.4 ± 2.3a 2.2 ± 1.1a 3.1 ± 2.1a
Variety (item) 13.5 ± 3.7a 14.2 ± 3.4a 13.7 ± 4.4a
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 203.8 ± 35.4a 225.7 ± 49.4b 201.3 ± 42.7a
Glucose (mg/dL) 91.7 ± 18.2a 95.4 ± 14.1a 129.4 ± 50.2b
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 140.8 ± 61.1a 169.8 ± 70.1b 172.7 ± 69.3b
HDL-C (mg/dL) 52.7 ± 12.4a 44.8 ± 9.3b 45.7 ± 12.2b
LDL-C (mg/dL) 122.9 ± 31.6a 146.8 ± 46.0b 121.0 ± 41.3a
Urea ((mg/dL) 31.9 ± 9.6a 33.4 ± 7.2a 37.4 ± 18.7b
Uric acid (mg/dL) 4.8 ± 1.3a 5.9 ± 1.6b 5.6 ± 1.5b
γ-GT (mg/dL) 31.8 ± 22.4a 36.1 ± 18.9a 32.1 ± 19.1a
nHDL-C (mg/dL) 151.1 ± 35.4a 180.8 ± 46.6b 155.6 ± 44.7a
CRP (mg/dL) 0.52 ± 0.57a 0.29 ± 0.21b 0.65 ± 0.96a
SBP (mm/Hg) 124.6 ± 15.6a 140.1 ± 16.8b 131.4 ± 16.0c
DBP (mm/Hg) 79.6 ± 8.9a 84.1 ± 8.1b 81.4 ± 6.0b
  1. CAD: coronary artery disease; BMI: body mass index; HEI: healthy eating index; SFA: saturated fatty acid; MUFA: monounsaturated fat acid; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acid; CAD: coronary artery disease; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein; nHDL-C: non high-density lipoprotein; CRP: C-reactive protein; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; γ-GT: γ-glutamyl transferase. Different letters indicate significant differences (p < 0.05).