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Table 1 Characteristics of Participants by Group According to the Number of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors - HIPOP-OHP Study

From: Relationship between Dietary and Other Lifestyle Habits and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Men

CMRF No 0 1 2 3 4 Total P diff P trend
Person N (%) 1597 (45.7) 1032 (29.5) 587 (16.8) 236 (6.7) 46 (1.3) 3498 -  
Age (year) 39.1 ± 9.6 41.8 ± 9.5 43.8 ± 8. 43.4 ± 9.4 46.3 ± 7.3 41.1 ± 9.6 <0.01 <0.01
SBP (mmHg) 110.2 ± 9.9 121.5 ± 14.7 130.8 ± 15.8 140.7 ± 14.1 142.4 ± 15.1 119.5 ± 16.3 <0.01 <0.01
DBP (mmHg) 67.3 ± 7.6 75.0 ± 10.5 81.6 ± 11.1 87.9 ± 10.1 89.8 ± 8.2 73.7 ± 11.6 <0.01 <0.01
High BP (%) 0 31.8 60.3 94.1 100 27.2 <0.01 <0.01
Dyslipidemia (%) 0 41.6 63.5 89.0 100 30.2 <0.01 <0.01
IGT (%) 0 5.7 15.7 27.1 100 7.5 <0.01 <0.01
BMI (kg/m2) 21.5 ± 1.9 23.2 ± 2.5 25.6 ± 3.0 27.2 ± 2.9 27.7 ± 1.9 23.2 ± 3.0 <0.01 <0.01
Obese (%) 0 20.9 60.5 89.8 100 23.7 <0.01 <0.01
IPAQ 1.4 ± 0.7 1.3 ± 0.7 1.3 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.7 1.3 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.7 0.21 0.25
Current-Smoking (%) 53.8 56.8 56.4 54.7 52.2 55.1 0.58 0.44
Alcohol (ml/day) 20.9 ± 30.3 24.2 ± 33.4 27.9 ± 36.5 23.2 ± 30.6 36.3 ± 40.4 23.4 ± 32.6 <0.01 <0.01
Alcohol (times/week) 2.9 ± 2.9 3.0 ± 3.0 3.1 ± 3.0 2.9 ± 2.8 3.1 ± 2.8 3.0 ± 2.9 0.71 0.78
Total energy (kcal) 2143 ± 449 2067 ± 461 2110 ± 484 2196 ± 508 2120 ± 481 2118 ± 465 <0.01 0.56
Protein (%kcal) 13.6 ± 1.6 13.9 ± 1.8 13.9 ± 1.6 14.0 ± 1.7 14.6 ± 1.9 13.8 ± 1.7 <0.01 <0.01
Fat (%kcal) 25.2 ± 4.5 24.7 ± 4.7 24.3 ± 4.7 24.7 ± 4.7 24.9 ± 5.1 24.8 ± 4.6 <0.01 0.66
Carbohydrate (%kcal) 60.5 ± 5.4 60.6 ± 5.8 60.9 ± 5.6 60.5 ± 5.7 59.3 ± 6.4 60.6 ± 5.6 0.35 0.15
  1. Characteristics of participants by group according to the number of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) in 3,498 Japanese men in 1999-2000 are shown. The chi-square statistical test for nominal variables and one way analysis of variance for continuous variables were performed to assess whether there were significant differences among the groups stratified by the number of CMRF. To obtain trend P, the "contrast" option for analysis of variance was used for continuous variables, and Mantel-Haensel test for prevalence variables. We defined four CMRF in this study as follows: 1) high BP: SBP ≥ 130 mmHg, or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg,or the use of an antihypertensive drug; 2) dyslipidemia: HDL < 40 mg/dl, or TG ≥ 150 mg/dl, or on medication for dyslipidemia; 3)IGT: fasting blood sugar concentration ≥110 mg/dl, or if less than 8 hours after meals ≥140 mg/dl), or on medication for diabetes mellitus; 4) obesity: defined as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2.CMRF = cardiometabolic risk factors, SBP = systolic blood pressure, DBP = diastolic blood pressure, IGT = impaired glucose tolerance, BMI = body mass index, IPAQ = International Physical Activity Questionnaire classification.