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Table 1 Maternal reproductive outcome evaluated at day 21 of pregnancy from different experimental groups.

From: Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy in diabetic rats

Variables Groups
  ND (n = 15) D (n = 15) DS (n = 15) DSPP (n = 17)
No. of corpora lutea a 13.54 ± 1.03 12.81 ± 1.72 12.08 ± 1.62 11.71 ± 2.84
No. of implantation sites a 12.63 ± 0.80 12.00 ± 1.26 8.25 ± 3.50*# 7.57 ± 3.57*#
No. of live fetuses a 12.18 ± 0.90 10.90 ± 0.70 7.25 ± 3.41*# 6.36 ± 4.27*#
Litter weight b 84.21 ± 6.98 73.31 ± 4.99 49.63 ± 18.07*# 46.05 ± 20.89*#
Maternal Weight Gain b 133.09 ± 14.99 107.38 ± 12.07 73.31 ± 21.24*# 46.58 ± 48.61*#
Fetal weight b 5.31 ± 0.29 4.41 ± 0.52* 4.49 ± 0.30* 4.23 ± 0.85*
Placental weight b 0.48 ± 0.03 0.61 ± 0.07* 0.62 ± 0.13* 0.66 ± 0.29*
Preimplantation loss (%) c 5.97 6.36 32.43*# 33.69*#
Postimplantation loss (%) c 2.72 6.35 13.26* 27.85*#
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD).
  2. ND = nondiabetic rats exposed to filtered air, D = diabetic rats exposed to filtered air; DS = diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy; DSPP = diabetic rats only exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy.
  3. * p < 0.05 - significant statistically difference as compared to ND group; #p < 0.05 - significant statistically difference as compared to D group. aZero - Inflated Poisson; bNormal distribution (Tukey Multiple Comparison test), and cGamma distribution.