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Table 2 Number and percentage (%) of placental histopathological changes in women presenting normoglycemia, mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes mellitus and overt diabetes mellitus

From: Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

  Pregnant groups
Histopathological changes Normoglycemia MGH GDM Overt DM
Circulatory     
   Cystoid degeneration 0 1 (2.9) 1 (12.5) 3 (3.6)
   Chorial edema 0 0 0 2 (2.4)
   Intima edema 0 0 0 4 (4.8)
   Interstitial hemorrhage 1 (16.7) 2 (5.9) 0 3 (4.8)
   Congestion 2 (33.3) 17 (50.0) 3 (37.5) 52 (62.6)
   Subchorial infarct * 2 (33.3) a 3 (8.8) b 0 3 (3.6) b
Degenerative     
   Villus edema 1 (16.7) 7 (20.6) 3 (37.5) 18 (21.7)
   Villus fibrosis 1 (16.7) 8 (23.5) 0 11 (13.2)
   Intervillus fibrosis 3 (50.0) 28 (82.4) 6 (75.0) 65 (78.3)
   Calcification * 4 (66.7) a 15 (44.1) a 1 (12.5) b 42 (50.6) a
   Focal hyaline degeneration 4 (66.7) 28 (82.4) 6 (75.0) 71 (85.5)
Proliferative     
   Dysmaturity 0 5 (14.7) 3 (37.5) 8 (9.6)
   Hofbauer hyperplasia 0 0 0 1 (1.2)
   Chorioangiosis 1 (16.7) 4 (11.8) 0 7 (8.4)
   Syncytial nodes 1 (16.7) a 11 (32.4) b 0 8 (9.6) a
Inflammatory     
   Villitis 0 0 0 2 (2.4)
   Focal amnionitis 1 (16.7) 4 (11.8) 1 (12.5) 7 (8.4)
Others     
   Phantom cells 0 2 (5.9) 0 1 (1.2)
   Two vessels 0 1 (2.9) 0 3 (3.6)
   Endarteritis 0 8 (23.5) a 1 (12.5) b 7 (8.4) b
   Duplicate membrane 2 (33.3) a 0 0 1 (1.2) b
   Cord hemorrhage 3 (50.0) 5 (14.7) 0 14 (18.1)
Total number 6 34 8 83
  1. Values followed by different letters present significant statistically difference (p < 0.05)