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Table 3 Univariate and multivariable analysis for factors associated with depression among study participants

From: Anxiety and depression among outpatients with type 2 diabetes: A multi-centre study of prevalence and associated factors

Characteristic Had depression n (%) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value AOR (95% CI)
Sex   < 0.001   < 0.001  
   Male 85 (22.5)   1.0   1.0
   Female 302 (59.1)   4.98 (3.69-6.72)   6.91 (4.90-9.76)
Age   < 0.001   < 0.001  
   Up to 50 years 125 (32.2)   1.0   1.0
   > 50 years 262 (52.3)   2.71 (1.75-3.04)   3.35 (2.42-4.65)
Marital status   0.001    
   Living with spouse 325 (41.6)   1.0 -- --
   Not living with spouse 62 (57.9)   1.94 (1.29-2.92)   
Education   < 0.001    
   Up to 5 years of schooling 161 (34.8)   1.0 -- --
   > 5 years of schooling 226 (52.9)   2.10 (1.61-2.75)   
Duration of disease   0.030    
   Less than 5 years 141 (39.2)   1.0 -- --
   More than 5 years 246 (46.5)   1.35 (1.03-1.77)   
Taking treatment   0.406    
   Single drug therapy 175 (45.1)   1.0 -- --
   Multiple drug therapy 212 (42.3)   0.89 (0.68-1.17)   
Physically active   < 0.001    
   Yes 108 (35.1)   1.0 -- --
   No 279 (48.0)   1.71 (1.29-2.28)   
Having Hypertension   < 0.001   < 0.001  
   No 185 (35.2)   1.0   1.0
   Yes 202 (55.6)   2.31 (1.76-3.04)   1.83 (1.34-2.50)
Having IHD   < 0.001   < 0.001  
   No 261 (38.8)   1.0   1.0
   Yes 126 (58.3)   2.21 (1.62-3.02)   2.45 (1.70-3.53)