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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the study subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS).

From: Metabolic syndrome is linked to a mild elevation in liver aminotransferases in diabetic patients with undetectable non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by ultrasound

Variables Without MetS With MetS P value
N (%) 168 (26.6) 502 (74.9) -
Age (years) 53.39 ± 10.34 54.36 ± 10.54 0.300
Females (n, %) 101 (60.11) 259 (51.59) 0.054
Diabetes duration (years) 5.94 ± 6.35 5.81 ± 5.46 0.800
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.96 ± 3.48 30.78 ± 4.69 < 0.001*
Waist circumference (cm) 88.59 ± 8.43 102.94 ± 8.67 < 0.001*
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78.77 ± 7.28 81.56 ± 8.19 < 0.001*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 122.50 ± 13.92 130.94 ± 17.34 < 0.001*
Anti hypertensive medications a (n, %) 68 (40.50) 200 (39.84) 0.917
Anti-Diabetic Medications (n, %)    0.470
   No medication 0 (0) 2 (0.01)  
   Glibenclamide 29 (17.8) 71 (14.1)  
   Metformin 34 (20.2) 123 (24.5)  
   Glibenclamide & Metformin 63 (37.5) 206 (41.0)  
Lipid Lowering Agents (n, %)    0.189
   No medication 103 (61.31) 271 (53.98)  
   Statins 53 (31.55) 174 (34.66)  
   Fibrates 4 (2.38) 30 (5.97)  
   Statins & Fibrates 8 (4.76) 22 (4.38)  
HbA1c (%) 7.68 ± 1.92 8.03 ± 1.77 0.130
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 162.86 ± 58.13 166.49 ± 53.23 0.445
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 158.21 ± 90.03 213.01 ± 118.73 < 0.001*
HDL-C (mg/dL) 48.16 ± 11.26 44.23 ± 12.60 < 0.001*
LDL-C (mg/dL) 115.59 ± 37.77 111.73 ± 36.05 0.236
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 195.08 ± 44.84 197.29 ± 45.34 0.583
Alanine aminotransferase (U/L) 27.30 ± 15.23 31.76 ± 18.74 0.006*
Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L) 21.53 ± 9.58 24.17 ± 13.84 0.007*
Alkaline phosphatase (U/L) 148.44 ± 92.83 151.95 ± 77.01 0.653
  1. *P value < 0.05
  2. Variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation unless stated otherwise.
  3. a Medication used for treatment of hypertension include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers and beta blockers.