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Table 3 Classification of Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents

From: Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes in youth: from diagnosis to treatment

  T1D T2D ADM MODY
Age at onset Childhood Puberty Puberty Puberty
Severity at onset Acute/severe Moderate to severe, usually insidious Acute/severe Mild/insidious
Insulin secretion Very low Varying Moderately low Varying
Insulin sensitivity* Normal Reduced Normal Normal
Insulin dependency** Permanent No Varying No
Genetic Polygenic Polygenic Autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant
Ethnic and racial distribution All (less frequent in Asians) Blacks, Hispanics, Asians and Amerindians Blacks Caucasians
Frequency (of all DM types in children and adolescents) ~80% 10 - 20% 5 - 10% Rare
Association with
Obesity
No Strong Varying No
Acanthosis nigricans No Yes No No
Autoimmunity Yes No No No
  1. DM: diabetes mellitus; T1D: type 1 diabetes mellitus; T2D: type 2 diabetes mellitus; ADM: atypical diabetes mellitus; MODY: maturity-onset diabetes of the young or monogenic diabetes.
  2. * insulin sensitivity: considered a pathogenic factor. **insulin dependency is diagnosed in the absence of acute disease or other stress factors [119].