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Table 3 Biochemical characteristics (Mean ± SD) of DKA episodes treated with subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analog (SC Analog; n = 30) and continuous intravenous regular insulin (IV Insulin; n = 30) during the first 30 hours of management with the same alternative fluid replacement therapy

From: Alternative management of diabetic ketoacidosis in a Brazilian pediatric emergency department

Time Insulin Therapy Blood Glucose (mg/dl) pH HCO-3 (mmol/L) β-OH butyrate (mmol/L) Na+(mEq/L) Cl(mEq/L) K+(mEq/L) Phosphorus (mg/dl) Urea (mg/dl) Serum Osmolality (mOsm/kg)
Admission IV Insulin 442.7 ± 146.2 7.18 ± 0.1 9.08 ± 3.61 8.45 ± 2.75 136.7 ± 4.1 105.1 ± 9.4 5.1 ± 0.8 5.1 ± 1.6 37.8 ± 15.4 312.9 ± 13.8
  SC Analog 443.7 ± 143.2 7.17 ± 0.1 10.38 ± 4.74 8.16 ± 3.53 137.1 ± 4.8 109.9 ± 6.6 5.1 ± 0.6 5.0 ± 1.3 37.5 ± 10.1 311.9 ± 13.7
Hour 2 IV Insulin 332.9 ± 74.6 7.19 ± 0.11 9.76 ± 4.08 7.08 ± 2.56 139.8 ± 4.5 108.3 ± 9.9 4.8 ± 0.8 3.9 ± 1.0 34.1 ± 14.3 310.9 ± 12.4
  SC Analog 335.7 ± 126.8 7.15 ± 0.13 9.83 ± 5.71 7.54 ± 3.53 139.0 ± 5.6 107.9 ± 8.4 5.0 ± 0.9 4.3 ± 1.1 32.5 ± 10.0 305.8 ± 16.2
Hour 6 IV Insulin 222.6 ± 42.1 7.24 ± 0.12 9.76 ± 4.08 4.08 ± 2.58 140.1 ± 5.4 109.8 ± 9.3 4.4 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 1.2 30.7 ± 13.0 305.4 ± 13.7
  SC Analog 213.6 ± 66.8 7.22 ± 0.12 9.83 ± 5.71 5.18 ± 3.17 140.4 ± 5.4 112.4 ± 9.9 4.6 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 0.9 28.6 ± 8.6 302.2 ± 13.3
Hour 12 IV Insulin 187.7 ± 86.3 7.31 ± 0.09 15.79 ± 4.42 2.61 ± 2.18 139.1 ± 4.0 110.2 ± 6.9 4.1 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.8 24.8 ± 12.9 297.6 ± 11.2
  SC Analog 241.4 ± 82.7 7.29 ± 0.08 14.25 ± 6.10 3.29 ± 2.84 137.5 ± 3.9 108.3 ± 6.9 4.1 ± 0.5 3.0 ± 1.0 27.0 ± 7.3 296.5 ± 10.34
Hour 18 IV Insulin 241.9 ± 122.0 7.36 ± 0.04 18.39 ± 3.66 1.57 ± 1.82 137.8 ± 4.0 104.8 ± 8.1 3.9 ± 0.4 2.6 ± 0.8 26.9 ± 12.0 297.6 ± 11.2
  SC Analog 210.6 ± 100.7 7.31 ± 0.05 16.78 ± 6.27 2.0 ± 2.0 138.1 ± 2.8 109.0 ± 6.3 3.8 ± 0.5 3.0 ± 1.0 27.2 ± 8.0 296.5 ± 10.3
Hour 30 IV Insulin 269.7 ± 133.5 7.37 ± 0.07 19.52 ± 5.10 0.84 ± 0.91 138.3 ± 5.2 106.9 ± 6.8 3.7 ± 0.5 2.5 ± 1.1 26.2 ± 10.8 302.4 ± 10.1
  SC Analog 245.9 ± 91.1 7.37 ± 0.06 18.19 ± 4.72 1.12 ± 1.59 137.2 ± 3.0 106.8 ± 7.9 4.0 ± 0.4 2.5 ± 0.8 26.5 ± 8.3 297.2 ± 5.4