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Table 2 Formulas used to calculate serum osmolality and anion gap in DKA [12]

From: Alternative management of diabetic ketoacidosis in a Brazilian pediatric emergency department

Effective osmolality (normal = 280-290 mOsm/kg) = 2 × [Na+ + K+] + glucose (mg/dl)/18
Anion gap (normal = 12 ± 2 mEq/L) = Na+ (mEq/L) - [Cl- +HCO3-(mEq/L)]