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Table 1 Principal Characteristics of the Participants (n = 2978).

From: Clustering of metabolic syndrome components in a Middle Eastern diabetic and non-diabetic population

Characteristic Men Women
  Non-diabetic participants
(n = 397)
Diabetic participants
(n = 565)
Non-diabetic participants
(n = 1255)
Diabetic participants
(n = 761)
Age (years) 41.1 ± 0.7 53.8 ± 0.5* 40.0 ± 0.4 54.1 ± 0.4*
Waist circumference (cm) 93.2 ± 0.6 99.5 ± 0.4* 90.9 ± 0.4 97.9 ± 0.4*
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 90.1 ± 0.5 174.3 ± 2.5* 91.5 ± 0.3 171.8 ± 2.1*
Insulin (U/l) 8.1 ± 0.3 8.9 ± 0.2 9.2 ± 0.2 9.0 ± 0.2
HOMA-IR (units)a 1.8 ± 0.08 3.7 ± 0.11* 2.1 ± 0.04 3.7 ± 0.09*
TG (mg/dl) 162.2 ± 4.7 208.7 ± 6.8* 133.7 ± 2.1 198.8 ± 4.1*
HDL-C (mg/dl) 46.8 ± 0.6 42.1 ± 0.5* 50.9 ± 0.3 48.5 ± 0.4*
SBP (mmHg) 121.1 ± 0.8 127.8 ± 0.7* 115.2 ± 0.5 131.9 ± 0.7*
Abdominal obesity (%)b     
   ATP III 22.7 36.0* 54.0 80.7*
   IDF 48.5 72.0* 78.6 95.8*
   Modified IDF 58.8 85.7* 51.2 76.9*
TG ≥ 150 (%) 43.3 59.9* 33.7 65.8*
Low HDL-C (%)c 26.8 46.4* 46.0 57.6*
Elevated blood pressure (%)d 35.6 56.8* 27.4 65.7*
MetS (%)e     
   ATP III 23.0 67.6* 31.3 87.7*
   IDF 28.1 66.1* 36.0 89.9*
   Modified IDF 31.2 78.1* 26.8 72.9*
  1. Variables are expressed as percentage or mean ± SEM
  2. * P <0.001 for the comparison of diabetic and non-diabetic participants. a Fasting insulin (U/l) × fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)/405. b, c, d and e See text for definitions.
  3. Abbreviations: HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; TG, triglycerides; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; MetS, metabolic syndrome.