This study demonstrated improvements in multiple markers of HEI, body composition and metabolic indicators following a 10-week Lifestyle Changing Program aimed to assist overweight-obese subjects. The lifestyle intervention used in this study is an example of community education strategy, aimed to provide to all participants information and skills to assist them in achieving recommendations for diet and physical activity , additionally to participants in G2 it was offered practical strategies to assist in food choices. Because participants were left to choose which dietary behavioral changes they would incorporate into their lifestyles, it was anticipated that these behaviors would be easier to sustain long term. This builds upon well-established principles of health promotion, i.e. by making healthy choices will continue to make those choices .
There are clear limitations to the results presented in this study. The main limitation is that subjects on the high dietary fiber intake chose that intervention. Thus, the effects seen on the high dietary fiber intake may not be due entirely (or at all) to the LCP itself but rather to the fact that the subjects differed - they were more motivated and hence more likely to change their diet and lose weight. There are issues related to the method for collecting dietary data. Diet was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall which has an important limitation for not capture intra-individual variability in food intake. Furthermore, overweight individuals are more likely to under-report their energy intake. Due to this underreporting, it is likely that the current estimates of calories could be underestimated and that dietary components played a larger role in this population's health.
Overweight-obese adults invited to participate in a 10-week high dietary fiber intake in combination with physical activity three times a week improved their HEI keeping stable their body composition, cardio-respiratory fitness and muscle strength. When LCP was associated with high dietary fiber intake there was an even better dietary quality along with reduced body sarcopenia and body adiposity. Furthermore, the high dietary fiber intake lead to a lower blood pressure and better plasma biochemical profile decreasing the incidence of MetS but without significance on markers of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.
The adoption of general dietary guidelines, or ad-libitum intake, has been studied and shown promising results [37, 38]. The free-choice approach to diet and physical activity has been described as a potential method to improve adherence to lifestyle changes . Our dietary component allowed flexibility for individuals to modify their dietary intake, supported by offering practical strategies, such as suggestions, for ingredients substitution in recipes and different cooking methods.
This program may be more applicable to the community setting than individualized diet and exercise programs which require intensive input to facilitate behavioral change. Additionally the group-based approach may be less expensive than individualized strategies.
Few lifestyle intervention studies  have succeeded in counteracting obesity and MetS without controlling energy intake or physical activity, or aiming for large initial weight loss. Smaller behavioral changes, such as increasing dietary fiber intake, are an alternative strategy, and there is evidence that interventions without prescribed weight loss or energy intake targets can improve clinical markers.
The dietary components most strongly related to body composition improvement in the current study was the change in average of foods consumed. Although participants' HEI at baseline was classified as low, a significant greater increase occurred in G2 (20.3 points), compared to G1 (0.9 points). This is likely to reflect the improved dietary quality and better food choices consumed regularly during the intervention.
It is known that as dietary fiber intake increased, energy intake decreased and body weight and body fat decreased as well. Fiber adds to food weight and volume without increasing energy consumption. Thus, more food can be eaten without a commensurate increase in energy intake, or the same total volume of food can be consumed with loss total energy . Total energy was not different between groups and moments. This is probably associated with underreporting of food consumption in obese individuals.
Diet and exercise interventions do not always improve plasma HDL concentrations, as observed by Janssen et al.,  when plasma HDL concentrations did not improve after a 16-week dietary intervention, with and without aerobic or resistance exercise. Similarly, MetS participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program  experienced improvements in all MetS components except plasma HDL concentrations, indicating that plasma HDL concentrations are somewhat resistant to modification through general diet and physical activity changes.
There are few "free-choice" group-based lifestyle intervention studies demonstrating significant changes in BP. The observed reductions 15.5% in SBP and 9.5% in DBP exceeded that which might be expected to accompany weight loss in this trial, e.g. a 1 mmHg reductions in SBP for every 2 kg reductions in body weight , and are comparable to those seen after more intensive interventions [44, 45].
The relationship between fiber intake and risk of cardiovascular disease has been noted in many studies [46–49]. Although the present study is quite small, the consistency of the findings about the benefits of dietary fiber intake is remarkable.